Military operations are executed in an information environment increasingly complicated by the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum portion of the information environment is referred to as the electromagnetic environment EME. The recognized need for military forces to have unimpeded access to and use of the electromagnetic environment creates vulnerabilities and opportunities for electronic warfare in support of military operations.
Within the information operations construct, EW is an element of information warfare; more specifically, it is an element of offensive and defensive counterinformation. NATO has a different and arguably [ citation needed ] more encompassing and comprehensive approach to EW. Primary EW activities have been developed over time to exploit the Electro Magnetic Seduction and vulnerabilities that are inherent in the physics of EM energy.
Activities used in EW include: electro-optical, infrared and radio frequency countermeasures; Electro Magnetic Seduction compatibility and deception; radio jammingradar jamming and deception and electronic counter-countermeasures or anti-jamming ; electronic masking, probing, reconnaissance, and intelligence; electronic security; EW reprogramming; emission control; spectrum management; and wartime reserve modes.
Electronic warfare consists of three major subdivisions: electronic attack EAelectronic protection EPand electronic warfare support ES. Electronic attack EA previously known as electronic countermeasures ECM involves the offensive use of EM energy, directed energy, or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability including human life.
In the case of EM energy, this action is most commonly referred to as "jamming" and can be performed on communications systems or radar systems. In the case of anti-radiation weapons, many times this includes missiles or bombs that can home in on a specific signal radio or radar and follow that path directly to impact, thus destroying the system broadcasting. Electronic protection EP previously known as electronic protective measures [EPM] or electronic counter-countermeasures [ECCM] involves actions taken to protect friendly forces personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability EA.
EP is the ability to defeat EA. Flares are often used to distract infrared homing missiles to miss their target. The use of flare rejection logic in the guidance seeker head of an infrared homing missile to counter an adversary's use of flares is an example of EP. Other examples of EP include spread spectrum technologies, use of restricted frequency lists, emissions control EMCONand low Electro Magnetic Seduction stealth technology.
Electronic warfare self-protection EWSP is a suite of countermeasure systems fitted primarily to aircraft for the purpose of protecting the host from weapons fire and can include, among others: directional infrared countermeasures DIRCMflare systems and other forms of infrared countermeasures for protection against infrared missiles; chaff protection against radar-guided missiles ; and DRFM decoy systems protection against radar-targeted anti-aircraft weapons.
An electronic warfare tactics range EWTR is a practice range which provides for the training of personnel in electronic warfare. EWTRs are equipped with ground-based equipment to simulate electronic warfare threats that aircrew might encounter on missions. Other EW training and tactics ranges are available for ground and naval forces as well. Antifragile EW is a step beyond standard EP, occurring when a communications link being jammed actually increases in capability as a result of a jamming attack, although this is only possible under certain circumstances such as reactive forms of jamming.
This is often referred to as simply reconnaissance, although today, more common terms are intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance ISR or intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance ISTAR. The purpose is to provide immediate recognition, prioritization, and targeting of threats to battlefield commanders. Signals intelligence SIGINTa discipline overlapping with ES, is the related process of analyzing and identifying intercepted transmissions from sources such as radio communication, mobile phonesradar or microwave communication.
Analysis parameters measured in signals of these categories can include frequencybandwidthmodulationand polarization. The distinction between SIGINT and ES is determined by the controller of the collection assets, the information provided, and the intended purpose of the information. Electronic warfare support is conducted by assets under the operational control of a commander to provide tactical information, specifically threat prioritization, recognition, location, targeting, and avoidance.
However, the same assets and resources that are tasked with ES can simultaneously collect information that meets the collection requirements for more strategic intelligence. The history of Electronic Warfare goes back to at least the beginning of the 20th century. The captain of the Russian warship, Orel, Electro Magnetic Seduction, requested permission to disrupt the Japanese communications link by attempting to transmit a stronger radio signal over the Shinano Maru's signal hoping to distort the Japanese signal at the receiving end.
Russian Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky refused the advice and denied the Orel permission to electronically jam the enemy, which in those circumstances might have proved invaluable. The intelligence the Japanese gained ultimately led to the decisive Battle of Tsushima. The battle was humiliating for Russia. The Russian navy lost all their battleships and most of its cruisers and destroyers. These staggering losses effectively ended the Russo-Japanese War in Japan's favor.
As time progressed and battlefield communication and radar technology improved, so did electronic warfare. Electronic warfare played a major role in many military operations during the Vietnam War. Aircraft on bombing runs and air-to-air missions often relied on EW to survive the battle, although many were defeated by Vietnamese ECCM.
As another example, inan Israeli attack on a suspected Syrian nuclear site during Operation Outside the Box or Operation Orchard used electronic warfare systems to disrupt Syrian air defenses while Israeli jets crossed much of Syria, bombed their targets, and returned to Israel undeterred. Some reports say  Israeli EW systems deactivated all of Syria's air defense systems for the entire period of the raid, infiltrating the country, bombing their target and escaping.
In Decemberthe Russian army received their first land-based Army operated multifunctional electronic warfare system known Electro Magnetic Seduction Borisoglebsk 2 developed by Sozvezdie. The more generalized equation is one of Maxwell's equations, called the Maxwell-Faraday equation, which defines the relationship between changes in electrical fields and magnetic fields.
It takes the form of:. Both E and B are changing in terms of time tand since they are moving the position of the fields are also changing. Share Flipboard Email. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Math and Physics Expert. Andrew Zimmerman Jones is a science writer, educator, and researcher.
Feb 15, · Electro-Magnetic induction Thread starter Tominator; Start date Feb 8, Feb 8, Electromagnetic induction occurs when a circuit with an alternating current flowing through it generates current in another circuit simply by being placed nearby. An alternating current is the kind of electricity flowing through power lines and home wiring, as opposed to a direct current, which we get from batteries. A coil of wire with current flowing through it forms an electromagnet that acts very much like a bar magnet. The coil will magnetize an iron nail and attract it in a remarkably vigorous way. Magnetic Suction: Magnetism & Electricity Science Activity | Exploratorium Teacher Institute Project. Apr 16, · The next video is starting stop. Loading Watch Queue. Radar jamming and deception is a form of electronic countermeasures that intentionally sends out radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information. Concepts that blanket the radar with signals so its display cannot be read are normally known as jamming, while systems that produce confusing or contradictory signals are. The production of an electric current created by a varying magnetic field. The production of a magnetic field, accomplished by running a current through a coil of wire. Check out Electro-Magnetic Seduction by The Robotiks on Amazon Music. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on derbattmogegefilykornorolsoftcat.xyzinfo Electromagnetic induction (also known as Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction or just induction, but not to be confused with inductive reasoning), is a process where a conductor placed in a changing magnetic field (or a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field) causes the production of a voltage across the conductor. This process of electromagnetic induction, in turn, causes. What is Electromagnetic Induction? Electromagnetic Induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday’s law of induction.. Electromagnetic Induction is a current produced because of voltage production (electromotive force) due to a changing magnetic field. These electromagnetic waves may be depicted as crossed electric and magnetic fields propagating through space perpendicular to the direction of motion and to each other, as illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 3: An electromagnetic wave consists of perpendicular oscillating magnetic and electric fields.
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