In the late s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to prerecord shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming.
The LP's microgroove standard started to be incorporated in the late s, and in the s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs. Unless the quantity required was very small, pressed discs were a more economical medium for distributing high-quality audio than tape, and CD mastering was, in the early years of that technology, very expensive, so the use of LP-format transcription discs continued into the s.
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing record for home use in September They were to be played with a special "Chromium Orange" chrome-plated steel needle. The inch discs, mostly used for popular and light classical music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the inch discs, mostly used for "serious" classical music, were normally pressed in Victor's new vinyl-based Victrolac compound, which provided a much quieter playing surface.
They could hold up to 15 minutes per side. Beethoven's Fifth Symphonyperformed by the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra under Leopold Stokowskiwas the first inch recording issued. The New York Times wrote, "What we were not prepared for was the quality of reproduction The dubs were audibly inferior to the original 78s.
Overall record sales in the US had crashed from a high of Except for a few recordings of background music for funeral parlors, the last of the issued titles had been purged from the company's record catalog by the end of the decade. The failure of the new product left RCA Victor with a low opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record, influencing product development decisions during the coming decade.
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side. Scottwho died September 22,at the age of Research began inwas suspended during World War II, and then resumed in When the LP was introduced inthe 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records. By78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales.
Canada and the UK continued production into and India, the Philippines and South Africa continued to produce 78s up untilwith the last holdout, Argentina continuing the practice until The LP's popularity ushered in the Album Era of English-language popular music beginning in the s as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums.
Although the popularity of LPs fell in the late s with the advent of first cassettes and later compact discsthe album survived as a popular format well into the s. Vinyl LP records have enjoyed an increased resurgence amongst a younger generation in the early s.
It was introduced by RCA Victor in In an attempt to compete with the LP boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP Extended Play 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side. Despite these efforts the 45 succeeded only in directly replacing the 78 as the format for issuing singles of individual popular songs. Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the s, but the higher cost of prerecorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market.
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes and became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids.
However the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette format was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise reduction systems.
The world-wide introduction of the digital Compact Disc CDwhich offered a recording that was normally noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches, eventually succeeded in toppling the LP from its throne as the initially high prices of CDs and CD players continued to fall.
Along with phonograph records in general, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as "vinyl". From the late s and growing steadily through the 21st century onwards, a renewed interest in vinyl has occurred and the demand for the medium has been on a steady increase yearly in niche markets, particularly among audiophiles, DJs and fans of indie music.
Most sales of music are of compact discs or digital file formats because of their generally cheaper prices and wider availability. The common practice for musicians in recent years has been to release a vinyl disc [ citation needed ]CD, and digital file at the same time.
In some cases [ citation needed ] if one invests in the slightly higher price of a vinyl disc, they are also given a CD or digital file download code free of charge with the purchase.
When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of 45 minutes, divided over two sides, with inch versions carrying a maximum of 35 minutes again over two sides. Owing to marketing attitudes at the time, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows.
Popular music appeared only on inch records. Executives believed classical music aficionados would leap at the chance to finally hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over a seemingly endless series of four-minute-per-side 78s, but popular music fans, used to consuming one song per side at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
Ten-inch records would reappear as mini-albums in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. However, inColumbia Records began to bring out extended-play LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. An extremely limited number of albums would eventually exceed even the minute limitation, with single albums going to as long as ninety minutes in the case of Arthur Fiedler 's LP 90 Minutes with Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Popsmade by Radio Shack.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound. The Greenpeace International Record Project released in also approaches 40 minutes per side over its two sides. An extremely rare two-disc German pressing restores full sonic clarity and dynamic range lost by the compression to single-disc.
At around 14 minutes Empty Spacesuit - Florida=Death - Post Information (Vinyl side for inch and 23 minutes per side for inch, LPs provided a measured time to enjoy a recording before having to flip discs. Some record turntables, called record changerscould play a stack of records piled on a specially designed spindle and arm arrangement.
Because of this, many multiple-record sets Empty Spacesuit - Florida=Death - Post Information (Vinyl released in what is called " automatic sequence ". A two-record set would have Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention, and then they could simply flip the stack over.
Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 for example to allow for ease of continuous playback, but difficulties if searching for an individual track. In contrast to compact disc players, very few record players, e. A brass section was recorded, and previous collaborators Vincent Membrez piano and longtime live cellist Dalai Theofilopoulou are featured.
Staps and Rossetti worked extensively, trying out a variety of styles and focusing on finding the best possible approach for each song. The result is an album which gains its heaviness not from the surface but from below, not so much from the vocals, but from the underlying riffage, bass and drumming. It was a conscious decision not to let this fondness of experimenting stretch to the choice of the team working on the album: Julien Fehlmann tracked drums, Jens Bogren Katatonia, Opeth handled mixing and mastering duties, and Norwegian artist Martin Kvamme, whose only clients are Mike Patton and The Ocean, was once more in charge of the mind-blowing artwork, making this his 5th consecutive collaboration with the collective.
Phanerozoic I: Palaeozoic by The Ocean. The Ocean. Home Portfolio The Ocean. Peter Voigtmann Synths. Paul Seidel Drums. Robin Staps Guitar. It can also be thought of as using traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of left and right channels monomaking it essentially compatible with simple mono recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the two channels.
The composition of vinyl used to press records a blend of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate has varied considerably over the years. Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the s energy crisisit became commonplace to use recycled vinyl. Sound quality suffered, with increased ticks, pops, and other surface noises.
Records in different novelty shapes have also been produced. Many critics have expressed skepticism regarding the cost and quality of Album records. The audio engineering software was created with mastering engineers Scott Hull and Darcy Proper, a four-time Grammy winner. The demonstration offered the first simulations of what HD Vinyl records are likely to sound like, ahead of actual HD vinyl physical record production.
Loibl discussed the Perfect Groove software at a presentation titled "Vinyl 4. Disc jockeys or DJs Album clubs still frequently use vinyl records, as cueing tracks from cassette tapes is too slow and CDs did not allow creative playback options until The skill came in subtly matching beats or instruments from one song to the next, providing a consistent dance tempo.
DJs also made occasional announcements and chatted on the side with patrons while songs were playing to take requests, similar to what radio disc jockeys have been doing since the s.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from 10" LP. Analog sound storage medium. This article is about vinyl records. For music albums in general, see Album. For other uses, see Long Play disambiguation. For the album by the Faces, see Long Player album, Empty Spacesuit - Florida=Death - Post Information (Vinyl. This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Standard Vinyl. Retrieved December 18, The Vitaphone Project. Retrieved Retrieved August 12, The New York Times. September 18, Retrieved November 25, New York: Saturday Review Press, Scott, a Developer of the LP, Dies at 92". Retrieved October 8, Howard H. Scott, who was part of the team at Columbia Records that introduced the long-playing vinyl record in before going on to produce albums with the New York Philharmonic, Glenn Gould, Isaac Stern and many other giants of classical music, died on Sept.
He was New York: Thunder's Mouth Press; p. Retrieved April 6, — via robertchristgau. The UK album chart reaches its 1,th No Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved December 31, Retrieved May 11, The Sound of Vinyl Blog. Audacity Forum. Archived from the original Forum Discussion on Retrieved 8 April New Scientist. Retrieved December 17, Retrieved May 1, April 26, Making Vinyl. April 4, Album May 14, May 2, Physical audio recording formats. Music box cylinder or disc 9th century Mechanical cuckoo early 17th century Punched card Music roll Phonautogram Tefiphon early s Teficord early s Tefifon Dictabelt Wire recording Magnetic stripe card Phonograph cylinder Phonograph record LP record production.
Categories : in music in technology Album types Audio storage Audiovisual introductions in Products introduced in Recorded music.
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