These modes are usually excited by a subwavelength grating. In celestial mechanicsan orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually due to their orbital periods being related by a ratio of two small integers.
Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies. In most cases, this results in an unstable interaction, in which the bodies exchange momentum and shift orbits until the resonance no longer exists.
Under some circumstances, a resonant system can be stable and self-correcting, so that the bodies remain in resonance. Examples are the resonance of Jupiter 's moons GanymedeEuropaand Ioand the resonance between Pluto and Neptune.
Unstable resonances with Saturn 's inner moons give rise to gaps in the rings of Saturn. The special case of resonance between bodies with similar orbital radii causes large Solar System bodies to clear the neighborhood around their orbits by ejecting nearly everything else around them; this effect is used in the current definition of a planet. Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR is the name given to a physical resonance phenomenon involving the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of an atomic nucleus in the presence of an applied, external magnetic field.
Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physicscrystalsand non-crystalline materials through Resonance - Pietro Coppola - Resonance/Attenuator (Vinyl) spectroscopy.
NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging MRI. All nuclei containing odd numbers of nucleons have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum. A key feature of NMR is that the resonant frequency of a particular substance is directly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field.
It is this feature that is exploited in imaging techniques; if a sample is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field then the resonant frequencies of the sample's nuclei depend on where in the field they are located.
Therefore, the particle can be located quite precisely by its resonant frequency. Electron paramagnetic resonanceotherwise known as electron spin resonance ESRis a spectroscopic technique similar to NMR, but uses unpaired electrons instead. Materials for which this can be applied are much more limited since the material needs to both have an unpaired spin and be paramagnetic. Resonance in particle physics appears in similar circumstances to classical physics at the level of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
The formula is further related to the particle's decay rate by the optical theorem. A physical system can have as many resonant frequencies as it has degrees of freedom ; each degree of freedom can vibrate as a harmonic oscillator.
Systems with one degree of freedom, such as a mass on a spring, pendulumsbalance wheelsand LC tuned circuits have one resonant frequency. Systems with two degrees of freedom, such as coupled pendulums and resonant transformers can have two resonant frequencies.
As the number of coupled harmonic oscillators grows, the time it takes to transfer energy from one to the next becomes significant, Resonance - Pietro Coppola - Resonance/Attenuator (Vinyl). The vibrations in them begin to travel through the coupled harmonic oscillators in waves, from one oscillator to the next. Extended objects that can experience resonance due to vibrations inside them are called resonatorssuch as organ pipesvibrating stringsquartz crystalsmicrowave and laser cavities.
Since these can be viewed as being made of many coupled moving parts such as atomsthey can have correspondingly many resonant frequencies. The vibrations inside them travel as waves, at an approximately constant velocity, bouncing back and forth between the sides of the resonator. If the distance between the sides is dthe length of a roundtrip is 2 d. To cause resonance, the phase of a sinusoidal wave after a roundtrip must be equal to the initial phase, so the waves reinforce the oscillation.
So the resonant frequencies of resonators, called normal modesare equally spaced multiples of a lowest frequency called the fundamental frequency. The multiples are often called overtones. There may be several such series of resonant frequencies, corresponding to different modes of oscillation.
The Q factor or quality factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is,  or equivalently, characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its center frequency.
A pendulum Resonance - Pietro Coppola - Resonance/Attenuator (Vinyl) from a high-quality bearing, oscillating in air, has a high Qwhile a pendulum immersed in oil has a low Q. To sustain a system in resonance in constant amplitude by providing power externally, the energy provided in Resonance - Pietro Coppola - Resonance/Attenuator (Vinyl) cycle must be less than the energy stored in the system i.
Oscillators with high-quality factors have low dampingwhich tends to make them ring longer. Sinusoidally driven resonators having higher Q factors resonate with greater amplitudes at the resonant frequency but have a smaller range of frequencies around the frequency at which they resonate. The range of frequencies at which the oscillator resonates is called the bandwidth.
Thus, a high- Q tuned circuit in a radio receiver would be more difficult to tune, but would have greater selectivityit would do a better job of filtering out signals from other stations that lie nearby on the spectrum. High Q oscillators operate over a smaller range of frequencies and are more stable.
See oscillator phase noise. The quality factor of oscillators varies substantially from system to system. Clocks, lasers, and other systems that need either strong resonance or high frequency stability need high-quality factors.
The quality factor of atomic clocks and some high- Q lasers can reach as high as 10 11  and higher. There are many alternate quantities used by physicists and engineers to describe how damped an oscillator is that are closely related to its quality factor. Important examples include: the damping ratiorelative bandwidthlinewidthand bandwidth measured in octaves.
The exact response of a resonance, especially for frequencies far from the resonant frequency, depends on the details of the physical system, and is usually not exactly symmetric about the resonant frequency, as illustrated for the simple harmonic oscillator above. The intensity is defined as the square of the amplitude of the oscillations. This is a Lorentzian functionor Cauchy distributionand this response is found in many physical situations involving resonant systems.
Heavily damped oscillators tend to have broad linewidths, and respond to a wider range of driving frequencies around the resonant frequency. The linewidth is inversely proportional to the Q factorwhich is a measure of the sharpness of the resonance. In radio engineering and electronics engineeringthis approximate symmetric response is known as the universal resonance curvea concept introduced by Frederick E.
Terman in to simplify the approximate analysis of radio circuits with a range of center frequencies and Q values. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Resonance electronics. This article is about resonance in physics. For other uses, see Resonance disambiguation. For other uses, see Resonate disambiguation. For the phonological term, see Sonorant. Main article: Tacoma Narrows Bridge Vthe voltage source powering the circuit Ithe current admitted through the circuit Rthe effective resistance of the combined load, source, and components Lthe inductance of the inductor component Cthe capacitance of the capacitor component.
Main article: Antiresonance. Main articles: Mechanical resonanceAcoustic resonanceand String resonance. Main article: Electrical resonance. Main article: Optical cavity. Main article: Orbital resonance. Main articles: Nuclear magnetic resonance and Resonance particle physics. Main article: Q factor. Electronics portal Physics portal. Acoustic resonance Antiresonance Center frequency Resonance - Pietro Coppola - Resonance/Attenuator (Vinyl) Damping Driven harmonic motion Earthquake engineering Electrical resonance Electric dipole spin resonance Formant Harmonic oscillator Impedance Limbic resonance Nonlinear resonance Parametric oscillator Positive feedback Q factor Resonance disaster Resonator Schumann resonance Simple harmonic motion Stochastic resonance Sympathetic string Tuned circuit Vibration.
System Dynamics 4th ed. University of Minnesota. Optics, 3E 3rd ed. Tata McGraw-Hill. Physics 3rd ed. Yusuf Billah and Robert H. Scanlan American Journal of Physics. Bibcode : AmJPh. Retrieved NBC News. DJ Central Records. Tension Pietro Coppola Remix. Progressive House. Universal Language. Dance Machine. Analyzer Original Mix. Starlight Records. My Love feat. Whitefox Radio Edit. Total Freedom Recordings. Whitefox Extended Mix. OutworkAlex Lo Faro.
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