Slow Burn. In the late s and early s, a white supremacist became an American political phenomenon. Senate and the governorship—was an existential crisis for the state and the nation. With Rob Lowe. This is literally a podcast where people I love, admire, and know well will be in a safe space to really let their hair down assuming they have any. I will cover the thoughtful to the extremely random. So join me and my guests from the world of movies, TV, sports, music, and culture for fun, wide-ranging, free-wheeling conversations.
Park Predators. Sometimes the most beautiful places hide the darkest secrets. Going to a restaurant one sought a corner far from windows. Body- pards waited for deputies before the Sobranie, no man of free opinions stirred without them nor went out after dark unless he must. Even the Foreign Legations were guarded. Yet the new Palace of Justice was the largest building in all Bulgaria! In cafes, even in crowded tramcars victims of all ranks and professions fell, while in the streets there were veritable battles, five or six aside blazing off two revolvers apiece regardless of passing pedestrians who were often wounded.
Every depart- ment of State was split into two camps waging civil war by proxy and both sides had friends in the police, so shooting affrays were part of the Capital s daily life but investigations seldom went beyond preliminaries.
But outrages in Yugoslavia were commonplace too. Tchkatrov had declared at a public meeting in Sofia during March that IMRO will continue to struggle by the same methods which it has employed in the past, while repudiating all responsi- bility for ensuing international complications I asked Sprostranov why should I not cross the border with a raiding band, then write from experience of revolutionary heroism.
He went to a telephone, then came again to say I should straightway meet a man who could arrange the matter. Our rendezvous was one of Sofia's most fashionable cafes. We sat to sip coffee with a rubicund man in khaki jacket and cap. Sprostranov introduced him— Ivan Gioshev, organiser of outrages beyond the frontier in the Kustendil- Dragoman sector!
The Yugoslav authorities offered a big price for his head. Courteously he explained that he could not send me upon a raid now — but in spring perhaps, when the snows were gone and there were leaves upon the trees. Then he asked a question. We had no news for him. It was supposed these had been laid by the same individuals who threw grenades near Zaitchar barracks.
I refrained from contradiction. Bourchier, that warped The Timeses outlook upon Bulgarian affairs some- times — or was it misled? Between and raiders from Bulgaria committed outrages in South Serbia, killing Yugoslav officials or civilians, the years of greatest activity being 51 outrages745561and His funeral was riotous, attended by police in force.
Spros- tranov and I were talking to police officers when three men in plain clothes passed in single file, their hands in pockets. Who are those? In there were few streets in Sofia without bullet- marked walls and foreigners were sometimes nearly bullet- marked too.
Strolling Sofiots fled in panic, or threw them- selves to the ground and blazed away too with their privy arsenals. The Director of the Italian Bank was shopping with his wife.
Italy made no protest, for the Italians did not conceal their sympathy wdth the Mihailovists and Italian journalists reported only affrays in which Mihailovists were attacked I Though local newspapers were full of political murders they reported only incidents already known to everybody.
An Englishman saw a man knifed to death in a main street one night while the police watched. An Italian journalist had barely reached home one evening when stray Mihailovist bullets splintered his door.
The newspapers mentioned none of these incidents, so one wondered how many more there were of which nothing was heard. In April he came from Bansko to Sofia. One day a car carrying terrorists in police uniforms drew up beside him in the street. Tsar Boris, he was told, wished to see him — for the Tsar knew him well.
His three bodyguards in Bansko were murdered : and his son, coming to look for him, disappeared too. So everyone presumed that Vapzarov stank — like so many others. But he had been taken to a building behind a high wall near Kustendil, a house of inquisition standing in a vineyard where victims were buried. He was charged with giving a grenade to somebody who had thrown it into a house in Bansko where Mihailov was being entertained.
Tortured, Vapzarov and the bomb-thrower admitted the charge: then the bomb- thrower was hanged. But Vapzarov, having friends in high places, was held captive under the eyes of the Bulgarian authorities until the coup d'etat in released him.
One day in May great posters, signed bv the Minister of Interior, proclaimed that though firearms might no longer be carried by unlicensed persons, licences would be issued to all who feared for their lives: and anybody might employ armed bodyguards, though these must be of good character and registered at the Town Hall. Nor far from Sofia a heavy cart blocked the road and a police- man jumped upon the running-board. Had we any fire- arms and where were our licences?
Then Kondov produced IS revolver, saying he had no licence but everybody knew e might carry arms. The police led him away into the age, telling him he must telephone to police headquarters or permission to proceed. As he disappeared his guards became restless. Yet he wrote : " Mihailov and I began to walk outside the hut, but not very far and returned again, because about a hundred yards from the hut in all directions there were pickets watching for Serbian patrols.
Everyone knew Mihailov and his lieutenants who often wore comitadji uniforms were lords of Petritch Department under martial law, that no State official might be appointed there or if appointed, could not remain unless they agreed, t at the Bulgarian civil authorities had no jurisdiction there whatsoever, that the Mihailovists examined all correspond- ence, stopped all hostile newspapers, Zdrav Isuse - Lado (2) - Kalvarija / Calvary (CD regular taxes, or ade marriages of which they disapproved, and turned back Bulgarian visitors who came without their permission or a pass from the National Committee.
If foreigners went they were treated with extraordinary solicitude by watch- ful agents. But few realised the horrors of terrorist rule until newspapers supporting Georghiev's Government lifted a corner of the veil in The peasant who dug their grave in at the local terrorist chief's order told how they died.
His digging was done when they came through the darkness with their escort. Six of them were peasants, one a teacher, and two unknown to the grave-digger — but those he knew were popular men.
They were bayoneted, then pushed into the grave — one of them alive. The grave-digger shovelled the earth over them while the executioners wiped their' bayonets. They walked about freely. A pros- perous town, the terrorist chiefs found it agreeable. He drove Dimiter Markov for his last ride early in Markov had been too popular— he had built a library and protested against the terror.
Warned, he fled to Sofia; but he was lured back by a friend. One dark night he was invited to an interview with Mihailov. There was no escape. Peasants found his body next day — another warning to them all. No newspapers reported the affair; but m a former Director-General of Bulgarian Elementary Education was condemned to death for it— but still lives.
And so on— one or two cases among hundreds. Truculent villagers who offended terrorist chiefs were simply charged with immorality, espionage, or Communism, then robbed or raped and murdered. If a Mihailovist wanted a house he tortured the owner till the poor wretch Zdrav Isuse - Lado (2) - Kalvarija / Calvary (CD died or made the house over; and of what use then was complaint to the authorities once a deed transferring the property was signed?
In July a student was kidnapped m the mountains; but when his father had paid a ransom the lad was murdered lest he told that one of his kidnappers was Dinko, brother of the deputy Vassilev, Mihailovist Governor of Bansko'' who in admitted a dozen murders.
The Sofia police issued a communique when the boy disappeared, which was all they did. Nor might opium be sold until its owner had a receipt for dues to the Organisation. But in November a Goma Djoumaia merchant sold opium without paying dues. Before Mihailov he was so tortured at the mill that he died of blood poisoning.
A bold Bulgarian police chief made enquiries, a military doctor who disliked terrorists having certified the real cause of the merchant s death; so Mihailov warned the widow that if she spoke the truth she and her child would be killed, whereas she would be paid a pittance till the matter was forgotten if she lied that her husband had fallen from a tree.
Upon her evidence the authorities dropped this awkward matter. In such rare cases brought against terrorists, money — to the police or the prosecutor — did its work. After the coup in many who had fled from this terror to other parts of Bulgaria returned to their homes; and villagers who had buried their friends readily dug up their remains for official idenufication.
Yet in the Military Club at Gorna Djoumaia one day in Tchkatrov had complained sorrowfully to me because The New York Times had reported the murder of several peasants by Mihailov s men. You know it is untrue. Everyone in the Department is with us, so why should we kill them?
Those who did not pay were fined, and if they still did not pay they had armed guests. No peas- ant might cut wood nor labourer work without a permit for which he paid from the terrorists.
Indeed Supremist tax collectors held a powerful weapon, so merchants of all nationalities became loud partisans of Bulgarian Revisionism and often found enthusiasm for Mihailov smoothed away business difficulties or turned State tax collectors from their doors. Even if they had not had partisans among the police, drugs yielded profit enough for bribes to ill-paid officials; and so, when discoveries in Egypt exposed the drug traffickers and other countries drove them out, many came to Bulgaria where they found eager collaborators.
The cultiva- tion of opium poppies which thrive in Petritch Department to supply controlled drugs for medical purposes was perfecdy legitimate : and it was easy to increase the crops, supplement them by smuggling raw products from Turkey and even from South Serbia, open secret factories, sell the drugs to international traffickers, then smuggle them away.
I knew one notorious woman smuggler well. Soon reported the League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee there were ten factories in Sofia and Petritch Department producing annually, under the noses of corrupt officials, enough acetic anhydride to make five tons of heroin. But they had seen Mihailovist guns and their hatred of Mihailov was fanatical. Thank God the new Govern- ment has ended their terror. Under Turkish rule things were never so bad.
Now all we want is peace. The people talked with pride of Sandanski, Alexandrov, and Protogerov; but for Mihailov they had no good word. A year later, with two Bulgarians and a German colleague, I motored through Greek Macedonia and South Serbia, having many talks with peasants as we mended punctures, wandered through the markets, or watched villagers in their fantastic costumes dancing wildly as African tribesmen at celebrations.
In progressive Skoplje the Macedonian mayor, speaking his own dialect, showed us his splendid town and was wel- comed with genuine affection by the people of villages we visited together. At St. Jovan Bigorski Monastery we sat with the Mace- donian Abbot, a Serbian high official from the Ministry of Agriculture, and an Inspector of Taxes from Dubrovnik, dinking glasses and gulping potent spirit, watching the ugoslav patrols upon the high ridge before us, the Albanian border.
But why did we fight among ourselves? There will be no Great Yugoslavia till all are united as equal partners; and I curse the great King Alexander's murderers — the King talked here several times with me and he knew the two nations must get together. He worked for that and for that he was killed! They were the Bulgars or Bugarsa disagreeable people with Mongol features who buried their widows alive and offered human sacrifices to their gods.
Wandering from Asiatic wastes, some 25, of them crossed the Danube while the Byzantine overlords of the Balkan Peninsula were defending Constantinople from the Saracens, overran the land between the Black Sea and River Isker, and established a fortified capital at Pliska. Yet the Bulgars were so tew and such eager polygamists that within two centuries their racial identity was completely submerged.
Even their language disappeared. But contemporary historians con- tinued to call this hybrid race Bulgars because the Bulgars were the ruling caste. Another body of them in Croatia lost even their name. But all did not go well between the Slavs and their Bul- gar overlords who raped their women and enslaved their children. Kroum overran Transylvania and swept into Hungary. In he captured Sofia, but the Byzantines drove him back and sacked his capital.
In 81 1, however, Kroum annihilated the Byzantine army, slew the Emperor Nicephorus, and drank wine from his skull; then he defeated Emperor Michael, stormed Adrianople, unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople, and returned home with a host of prisoners, who were settled along the Danube, bringing culture and Christianity among their captors. Most able among these missionaries were the monks Kyril and Methodius, natives of Salonika and probably of Slavonic stock, though their father Constantine was a Byzantine officer and Methodius had governed a Macedonian province for Byzantium; yet the Bulgarians claim them and venerate them as patron saints.
In Kyril devised an alphabet which would represent the hitherto unwritten Slav phonetics, thus originating the Slavonic or Kyrillic script. Meanwhile Khan Boris, who had attacked Macedonia, was beset by the Emperor Michael while his domain was stricken with famine. The Byzantine or Greek Patriarch at Constantinople incorporated the Bulgar Church, though allowing its Archbishop to control its inter- nal affairs.
The Serbian Slavs had been converted by other fol- lowers of Methodius in Khan Simeon, who succeeded his father Boris inraised his realm to a place among the great cultured nations of the earth.
But he was filled with wild ambition. He wanted Constantinople and a mighty Bulgaro-Byzantinc Empire. He carried fire and sword through Thrace, Albania and Macedonia, massacring, plundering, and levy- ing tribute, burning Byzantine churches and cutting off pri- soners' noses; he besieged Constantinople in vain incrushed a popular revolt in against his warlike policy: then he invited the Serb nobles to a banquet, butchered them, and swept through their lands, destroying everything he could.
Then in he proclaimed himself Tsar of the Bulgars and Greeks, insolently demanding a triumphal entry into Constantinople.
To-day the Bulgarians are proud of Simeon, but he had scourged alike his people and his neighbours. To win a title he had exhausted his realm and sacrificed Transylvania to the Magyars. To consolidate his personal power he had pampered the Bulgar nobles and clergy who had combined to rob the peasants, growing fat and de- tnoralised by this despoliation.
Demoralisation foreshadowed disintegration. The First Bulgarian Empire ceased to exist. Meantime ShW man died and three of his sons were murdered — the last by their youngest brother, Samuel, who dreamed of restoring the Bulgarian Empire. The Macedonian Churches headquarters were at Okhrid; and the title was chosen for prestige, the name Macedonia having sunk into contemporary oblivion. In Samuel thrust the Byzantines from Bulgaria proper and annexed it, drove south into Thessaly, then occu- pied Serbia a land of kindred Slavs which became an autonomous State under his son-in-law.
But Samuels glojy was short-lived. Basil put out the eyes of 15, prisoners, though sparing to each hundredth one eye by which he might lead back his comrades to their Tsar.
At the sight of this awful procession Samuel died of grief and rage. Between and some 1, Petchenegs and Kumans crossed the frozen Danube, the Byzantines letting them settle in Bulgaria and Thrace.
These hordes scarcely penetrated Macedonia beyond Kumanovo; but they altered die character of regions which are Bulgaria to-day, submerg- ing the old Bulgaro-Slavonic stock — though the Church's great influence and established usage preserved the Bulgar name and Slavonic language. Indeed the modem Bulgarians are the product of twenty different stocks grafted upon a Slavonic stem as their varying racial types indicate.
In Kaloyan was assassinated while besieging Salonika, hlis nephew, who succeeded him, concluded an alliance with the Franks; but he failed to crush the rising power of Serbia and lost Mace- donia to the Epirots.
But his Empire declined after his death in His eldest son, who lost Thrace and Macedonia again, was poisoned in ; but though his second son recovered Macedonia for two years fromthe Bulgars were finally driven out by the resusci- tated Byzantines, while the Tartars came over the Danube and exacted tribute. Then the remainder of this short-lived second Bulgarian mpire disintegrated. Where- upon the Bulgarians submitted to Serbia. Under these Khans they had terrorised and welded together 'Sj the Slavs of Bulgaria proper, whereas the Slavs elsewhere had o led an easy village life while their headmen squabbled and 3 fought until at last foreign dangers promoted union.
But while they let Bulgaria proper retain her autonomy and her Patriarchate, Slavonic Macedonia became an integral part of Serbia and the Archbishopric of Okhrid passed under the Serbian Patriarchate. Numerous churches were built and monasteries endowed, these remaining islands of Serbo- Slavonic culture through the centuries.
Alexander proved a capable ruler but was soon beset by the oncoming Turks. When he died. Serbian power was crushed at the battle of Kossovo in and a Serbo-Bulgarian army routed near Adrianople in The celebrated Kraljevitch Marko of Serbian ballads, who ruled in Macedonia, had to accept Turkish suzerainty, though Macedonian autonomy was not finally extinguished until All Bulgaria was already subdued.
The Turks, though poor administrators, were generous conquerors whose coming stopped perpetual strife. Districts which accepted their faith might govern themselves; from these autonomous stocks sprang the Pomaks. To certain inaccessible towns of the central Balkan Mountains the Turks extended like privilege for tribute Album) a service, these towns preserving their Christianity and traditions and eventually rearing the revolutionary heroes of the Bulgarian renaissance.
But the Bulgar clergy, fearing less for their nocks than their riches, had fled to Wallachia: so in the urks reduced the abandoned Patriarchate of Trnovo to an rchbishopric, under the Greek Patriarchate which w'as preserved at Constantinople as an intermediary between oslems and Christians, The Serb Patriarchate w'as sup- Serbian Church passing under the rchbishopric of Okhrid which maintained under the reek Patriarchate's control autonomy and Slav minor clergy.
The Slav liturgy was abolished and native clergy gradually ousted by Greeks. The same befell the Archbishopric of Okhrid in But the Serbian Patriarchate had preserved Serbian nationalism. In Serbia became completely independent and thenceforward played a difficult role, the Piedmont of the South Slavs, sometimes with Austria-Hungary and some- times against, until the Yugoslav Kingdom emerged from the World War.
But the Bulgars, without any national institution sincesunk in apathy and ignorance and isolated by the Balkan and Rila Mountains, never emigrated and never re- volted. As a nation they were forgotten — a lost race; but their name survived them, the term bitgar being widely used to denote a mere peasant, Album), an uncouth or simple rayah, and eventually passing into our own language with a narrow and obscene meaning.
The Slav peasants of the Balkan Peninsula, held to Christianity only by superstition, were shamelessly exploited by the degraded Greek priesthood of a corrupt Church which connived at witchcraft and pagan customs and taught that robbery or deception of Moslems was no sin.
The Greek Patriarchate, which was interested only in making all native Christians believe themselves Greeks, sold bishoprics and parishes to anyone who could pay; and the purchasers, caring only for the fees they could extort from their flocks, summoned to their aid the legions of devils and vampires of pagan times and leagued themselves with local witches to terrify the peasants who only endured them for fear.
Atheism spread; while the Bulgarian practice of knotting a handkerchief to imprison the malevolent spirit of any priest met on the road originated in those days. The Christian Slavs — who might rise to the highest places if they would — all called themselves Greeks, for their Church and clergy and schools were Greek, and their commercial and cultural language Greek; these renegades were ashamed to be Slavs for tlie Slav was a labourer, a bugar or rayah, a serf who tilled the soil and gave half its yield to a Moslem overlord, whereas the Greek could read and write and rob from an office, a privileged aristocrat who dwelt in towns, sheltered by the Capitulations, pampered by foreign traders and Consuls.
The Macedonian Slav monk Paissi. The Christian peasants paid tithes or taxes upon all produce they did not surrender to landlords, and upon their emaciated live-stock too. Their influence with corrupt junior officials stifled appeals by the peasants who were consequently little disposed to produce more than they need. Such conditions bred bandits and outlaws.
The outlaws, called Haiduks, men who had resisted some injustice, w'ere often idealists, the heroes of many ballads, Robin Hoods who preyed upon rich magnates; they would help the poor, terrorise the rapacious and enforce rude justice in their localities.
In Russia some Balkan Slav students inspired a Slovak scholar called Venelin to study their history and in he was sent to the Balkans by Russian scientists. Finding the unliberated Slav peasants called themselves Bugars Bugarinthough the name had lost all national significance, this imaginative enthusiast called them all Bulgars.
This name, having an historical precedent while marking a convenient distinction from the liberated Serbs, found favour with cartographers, diplomats, and even wfith the Serbs themselves, being cer- tainly more appropriate than the name Greeks by which the Turks knew all their Orthodox Christian subjects.
Venelin fired Bulgarian students with patriotic zeal, while rich Bulgar merchants, finding it no longer paid to call them- selves Greeks in Turkey, subscribed for Bulgarian schools and for books in a medley of Russian characters.
The first Bulgarian school opened at Gabrovo in and soon there were over two hundred in Bulgaria. Committees were formed in Bucharest, Belgrade, Constantinople and in Russia, young Bulgars went to foreign universities, and soon these nation- alists had convinced themselves that Alexander the Great and most other Balkan celebrities too were among their forebears.
Captain Mamartchev, who had led Bulgarian volunteers with the Russians against Turkey intwice failed to raise the standard of revolt, for no revolt could succeed unless the people were prepared. So the nationalists worked to re-establish the Bulgarian Church — whereupon the Greek Bishop of Trnovo burnt the old Bulgar Patriarchate's library in For liberation from the Greek Patriarchate and the right to have their own language in their churches the people were eager everywhere, the Greek bishops' and priests' tyranny provoking violent protests from the old Serb Bishop- rics of Skoplje and Samokov in On xMarch 10,at Russian instigation, the Porte proclaimed a Bulgarian Ex- archate with headquarters at Constantinople and no obliga- tion to the Patriarchate beyond consultation upon matters of faitb.
The Patriarchate proclaimed it a schismatic Church. The Porte gave the Exarchate jurisdiction over al! Bulgaria proper and Eastern Roume ia, also over Nish, Pirot, Vidin, Samokov, Kustendil, and Veies which had been bishoprics under the Serbian Patriarchate until moreover a clause provided that if two-thirds of the popula- tion of other districts so desired they should also pass under the Exarchate.
Little propaganda or coercion by Bidgarians or Turks was needed to induce the Macedonian S avs to opt for the Slavonic Exarchate which promised an end of Greek priestly extortion, so in Okhrid and Skoplje passed under the Exarchate and the people were told they W'ere now Bulgars.
To Russia the Exarchate was a channel through which Austro-Hungarian designs might be checked and Russian influence spread among the Balkan Slavs; so money poured into Exarchist coffers, Bulgarian Christianity became a political conspiracy, the churches became secret meeting- places. Under Russian auspices revolutionary committees m Constantinople and printing-presses at Trnovo, Shumen and Plovdiv poured forth sedition before the eyes of easy- going authorities.
Heroically they stirred three abortive revolts and led innumerable daring exploits, nor did the treachery of later days stain their fair names; theirs was the idealism of men bred in the freedom of the Balkan Mountains. But in revolt flared up in Bosnia and Hertzegovina : Serbia and Montenegro declared war upon Turkey, the Ser- bian army marched upon Nish and Vrania, the Kumanovo- Kratovo district rose in sympathy; but the revolts were crushed, the Serbs beaten, tieir churches and sixty-one schools in Macedonia closed.
Meantime Bulgarian bands had crossed the Danube from Roumania, compelled the Christians of Panagurichte and Koprivtchitza to revolt burning out those who held back and attacked Moslem settlements. But there were too few rebels. Whereupon Gladstone, arising in generous wrath, denounced all that was Turkish. A Conference of Ambassadors at Constantinople agreed in December that Turkish territory between the Black Sea and Albanian Mountains should be divided into two self-governing provinces under Christian governors, with Trnovo and Sofia as their respective capitals.
The people were delighted at this arrangement which promised freedom from rapacious landlords and tax-farmers. But the Porte demurred. At the historic siege of Plevna and desperate struggles upon the Shipka Pass Bulgarian volunteers took part, but there was no widespread rising against the Turks who had many friends among the peasants.
He found Sofia the chosen Capital dominated by a Russian Commis- sioner Prince Dondoukov-Korsakov and Russian officials of questionable integrity whose tutelage was resented. Karaveiov secretly conspired to unite Eastern Roumelia with Bulgaria. Prince Alex- ander who had promised he would not disturb the status quo, had not been consulted but could hardly repudiate the accomplished fact of union which stirred wild enthusiasm; yet Russia, exasperated at premature action which aroused European suspicion of her intention to Bulgarise Mace- donia through the Exarchate and ultimately create a Great Bulgaria under her control the San Stefano planwithdrew her military instructors from the raw Bulgarian Army, leaving it almost without officers.
The Russians now agitated violently against Prince Alex- ander whose independent conduct, they pretended, deprived isolated Bulgaria of their protection. Fear of losing Rus- sian support for the Great Bulgaria project inspired certain impetuous officers among them Alexander Protogerov and Radko Dimitriev to break into the Palace in the dead night of August 21, compel the Prince to sign his abdication, and hustle him out of the country; then these conspirators found themselves almost unsupported and fled — but were eventually pardoned.
On August 29 the Prince was recalled. Another Russian Commis- sioner, General Kaulbars, now came to Sofia; but in defiance of him the Sobranie chose Prince Waldemar of Denmark to succeed Alexander, whereupon all the Russians departed again.
Then Prince Waldemar declined the throne. So Bulgaria had neither Prince nor protectress. It was not easy to find another Prince. The Liberal Stefan Stambulov, strong man of the Regency, invited the Sultan to become Prince of Bulgaria, his masterly idea being a Balkan Federation under Turkish suzerainty; but the Sultan rejected it for fear of Russia.
King Charles of Roumania declined the throne of a Dual Monarchy too, for the same reason. Whereupon there began a fierce agitation against Ferdinand, the bishops declined to pray for him, and Stambulov was confronted by a series of serious mutinies the most notable being led by the Macedonian Major Panitza which he crushed with a heavy hand.
A year later the Bulgarian lepiesentatiye at Constantinople Vulkovitch was killed too, by Russo whiles. The moderate Russo- phile Kaiavelov and his chief friends, though innocent, were mrtuied to admit complicity in the assassinations, though Karavelov denied to foreign representatives who visited him in gaol that he had been ill-treated, wishing to spare his country that shame.
Realising too late his error in bringing the insufferable i HK S 1 O R Y OF B U L G ARIA 69 Ferdinand to Bulgaria, Stambulov planned with the War Minister to suppress the royal prerogative of appointing and promoting army olticers, which Ferdinand was abusing to create a belligerent military clique of his own satellites; but Ferdinand cunningly embroiled Stambulov with the War Minister in a domestic scandal, then dismissed the latter and put in his place his favourite General, Ratcho Petrov, whose corruption inspired many ribald songs and jests.
So he resolved to be rid of Stambulov. Among his allies he had the Bulgarised Macedonian immi- grants who hated Stambulov because he would not tolerate their interference, despised their treachery, and argued that the eople of Macedonia should work out their own destiny.
Ferdinand incited the Opposition against Stambulov who thereupon tendered his resignation on May 18,think- ing the Prince would not dare drop his pilot. But a secret subterranean passage between the Palace and the Russian Legation had been well used.
On July 2,he was attacked in a Sofia street, and though wearing mail beneath his coat his arms were hacked off before anyone could intervene. As he lay dying he accused Ferdinand of instigating this attack which, upon secret instructions, the police had facilitated. But Austria-Hungary threatened Serbia with economic blockade if this agreement was rati- fied and Bulgaria with severance of diplomatic relations unless Stoilov apologised, while Russia stood discreetly aside indeed between Russia and Austria-Hungary contrived a self-denying collaboration in the Balkans.
Both Serbia and Bulgaria gave way; whereupon Austria-Hungary concluded with Stoilov a secret agreement whereby, should Turkey-in-Europe be partitioned, Bulgaria would claim no territory west of the Struma River but should have eastern Serbia Pirot, Nish and Vraniawhile Austria-Hungary pledged herself to uphold Ferdinand and his dynasty.
In Ferdinand put Ratcho Petrov at the helm, but his supporters promptly became involved in a financial scandal; whereupon the Prince, planning to exploit Russian benevolence again, allowed free elections which returned the Russophiles Karavelov and Danev, though Karavelov resigned when vested interests successfully resisted his tobacco monopoly plan.
Danev had Radoslavov and his colleagues condemned for abuses while in power, legislated against the dismissal of Civil Servants for political reasons, and in signed a military alliance with Russia to counter-balance the treaty Austria-Hungary had concluded with Roumania in Ferdinand thereupon installed an Austrophile Cabinet under Ratcho Petrov who encouraged the disastrous Ilinden rising in Macedonia.
Negotiations were concluded at Nish in But Supremists agitated so violently against an arrangement which abandoned Skoplje to Serbia assas- sinating Petkov and his Minister of Education Pechev in Sofia to mark their displeasure that when Austria-Hungary protested against it too, Album) Serbia equivalent advantages for her export trade, it was dropped.
In Russia agreed to help Bulgaria obtain an outlet upon the Aegean Sea east of the Struma River, but her defeat by Japan had w'eakened Bulgarian respect for her. Russia restrained Turkey from attacking Bulgaria, paying the differ- ence between the indemnity Turkey demanded and the amount Bulgaria agreed to find. Thus Bulgaria became an independent Sovereign State.
Hoping a Turkish massacre of Christian rebels might induce the Western Powers to revise their decision, the Russians charged a Cossack oiiicer to organise revolt in eastern Macedonia. In October this olliccr assembled the four hundred Macedonian volunteers who had fought for Bulgaria and the leaders of the Kumanovo-Kratovo rising, and sent them in bands from Bulgarian soil to seize the precipitous Kresna defile.
Thev rallied some peasants by promise of liberation, occupied Ransko. Then their leader was killed and several thousands of refugees poured into Bulgaria while bashi bazouks looted and gutted their homes.
But Europe was unmoved and the refugees soon returned under amnesty. Two years later a rising planned by the Exarchist bishops of Okhnd and Skoplje was nipped in the bud a Greek abbot betrayed their plot ; whereupon Turkish control was tightened and the bishops deported with their fellow- conspirators.
Among those involved was Spiro, nicknamed Tseme the Blacka typical Haiduk, who had won fame around Prilip by protecting the people from freebooting Moslem officials and bandits. The story reached Spiros ears he was a clerk by profession and tobacco- smuggler by trade but had lately thrashed a Turk and was m hiding from the consequences. Then they decided to become professional bandit-slayers.
But some of Spiro's adherents carried on, led by Dime Tchakre. He solicited subscriptions from rich townsmen, among them the bankers Kraptchev and Kondov; but their money stood them well with the Turks, so they declined to pay, Kondov insulting Tchakre's mother who had called for his contribution.
Thereupon, on Easter SundayTchakre and five men with arms concealed beneath heavy cloaks went to Kondov's house in Prilip, bent on avenging the insult: but while they waited there for Kondov, his relative Kraptchev warned the Turkish authorities. Kon- dov s house was surrounded. Tchakre sent the family away, then held the Turks at bay for two days. But the house was set afire and the defenders shot down while trying to escape. In truth the flame of revolt they lit burnt on, for many young Mace- donians were inspired to emulate them while dreaming of ultimate freedom.
He found Bulgaria and Serbia planning to annex or partition his country; and in Sofia he met many Mace- donians in Bulgarian service who thought they could best liberate Macedonia by working first for autonomy with Bul- garian help, then uniting with Bulgaria as Eastern Roumelia had done.
But Gruev disliked this plan and resolved to fore- stall it, knowing Bulgarian domination would never appeal to non-Slav Macedonians, nor to many Slavs themselves. Christo Tatartchev from Rezeii as ihesident and himself as Secretary. During the Committee began to build a Mace- donian national organisation, its members nominating local organisers and arranging sub-Committees at Salonika, Seres, Skoplje and Bitolje.
The melodies are aligned in stile with the heritage of the wider Kajkavian region, and some were already validated in practice. Lado Vocalists is the name of the vocal ensemble in which the singers and dancers of the LADO ensemble perform, in a representative manner, the vocal musical tradition of Southern Croatian regions. This first independent album was envisioned as a journey through the most interesting parts of the liturgical year: Christmas songs and carols, songs dedicated to Virgin Mary, Lent and Easter songs.
Songs sung by Ana Kelin in her long and unique career are varied; some joyful and merry, some sad, regretful. It is this adaptability of her voice, which changed with ease according to the demands of the performance, that was her greatest virtue. Some of these carols were performed for the first time on 22 December in the Zagreb Cathedral, and are a regular part of our Christmas concerts today.
Kalvarija je svojedobno imala samo jednu javnu projekciju u zagrebačkom kinu Kustošija, nakon čega je uslijedila jednako neuspješna ograničena video distribucija. Na pulskom festivalu za vrijeme izbornika Mate Kukuljice, Kalvarija nije uvrštena u program zbog navodnih tehničkih nedostataka. Godine Irské drama s prvky černého humoru pojednává o knězi, který je sužován zlomyslnými obyvateli svého městečka. Poté, co mu během zpovědi jeden z farníků vyhrožuje smrtí, se musí otec James pustit do boje s všudypřítomnými temnými silami.V hlavní roli. LADO, the National Folk Dance Ensemble of Croatia, was founded in in Zagreb as a professional national ensemble, with the aim of researching, artistically interpreting and presenting on stage the most beautiful examples of the rich traditions of Croatian music and dance. Ob vznožju Starega gradu v Smledniku je Kalvarija s štirinajstimi kapelicami križevega pota in tremi križi na vrhu in je svojevrstna arhitekturna posebnost. Zgraditi jo je dal smledniški graščak baron Franc Smledniški leta v osi, oziroma ravni črti, ki jo povezujeta Stari grad in Krvavo znamenje, kapelico v spomin na deželnoknežje morišče na polju pod podružnično. Kalvarija () Calvary. Žanr Drama. Godina Redatelj John Michael McDonagh. Glavne uloge Brendan Gleeson, Chris O'Dowd, Kelly Reilly. Preporuka korisnika (2) (0). Software Sites Tucows Software Library Software Capsules Compilation Shareware CD-ROMs CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Featured image All images latest This Just In Flickr Commons Occupy Wall Street Flickr Cover Art USGS Maps. Metropolitan Museum. Top NASA Images Solar System Collection Ames Research derbattmogegefilykornorolsoftcat.xyzinfog: Zdrav Isuse · Kalvarija. View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the CD release of Iz Kajkavskih Krajeva - Vol. 3 I 4 on Discogs. Label: Aquarius Records (2) - CD • Format: 2x, CD Album • Country: Croatia • Genre: Folk, World, & Country • Style: Folk. LADO je nacionalni profesionalni folklorni ansambl osnovan godine, sa zadaćom i ciljem istraživanja, prikupljanja, umjetničke obrade i scenskog prikazivanja najljepših primjera bogate hrvatske glazbene i plesne tradicije. Podaci clana kalvarija. Ocene u poslednjih 12 meseci Pozitivne: 1 Negativne: 0 • Broj u zagradi () pored korisničkog imena člana predstavlja zbir pozitivnih i negativnih ocena, s tim što se u zbiru računa samo prva ocena dobijena od istog korisnika. Calvary jde podstatně dál. Existenciální drama, čistě o kladném hrdinovi ve světě samých záporáků. Herecká irsko britská legie hereckých žoldáku, si to pod vedením jednoho z nejtalentovanějších režisérů černých akčních komedií současnosti, dává tak, jak jim to bylo rozdáno.
Wait On Time - The Fabulous Thunderbirds - Invitation Only (DVD), Someone, Someone - Various - Roots Of British Beat (CD), Dresden - OMD* - English Electric (File, Album), H.Bomb, Blu Room* Featuring Leoni (2) - Alright (Vinyl), The Fool, Juan Polo Valencia - El Legendario (Vinyl, LP, Album), Himmelsrock - Revier-Express - Himmelsrock (Vinyl)