The Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD) reactions Griess were employed for nitrite-nitrogen analysis and the nitroprusside-catalyzed Berthelot reaction Berthelot was utilized for ammonia-nitrogen determinations. This application took advantage of an EOP capable of instant flow direction switching.
The same system was further incorporated with a miniaturized diffusion scrubber Liu and Dasgupta or a droplet sampler Yang et al. Schematic diagram of capillary format SIA system.
Reprinted with permission from Liu and Dasgupta Gan et al. The pump rate increased linearly with the applied voltage from to V. Up to 7. Yang et al. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used as the detector.
Zhao et al. The system consisted of an EOP, two solenoid valves and an absorbance detector. The method was based on the Griess—Saltzman reactions Griess ; Saltzman to form a colored product which was measured at nm. Pu and Liu manufactured an EOP on a microchip and demonstrated its application for an enzyme inhibition assay. Figure 10a shows the photomask design of the pump chip and Fig, Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD). There were three basic steps to accomplish the assay.
Step 1, a negative high voltage was applied to the EOP to aspirate sample and reagents into the isolation channel. Step 2, after the sample and reagents were reacted adequately, a positive high voltage was applied to the pump to propel the product to the detector for measurement.
Step 3, the system was reset this included washing the sampling capillary attached to the selection valve and loading this capillary with the next sample solution. Reprinted with permission from Pu and Liu Electroosmotic pumps offer a simple and cost-effective means to produce adequate pressures and flow rates for capillary chromatographic separation.
Paul et al. Hollow metal tubings were used as grounding electrodes. To characterize the EOP, a pressure transducer was utilized to measure the pumping pressures. To evaluate the performance of the system, a mixture of thiourea, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, biphenyl and anthracene were separated.
The number of theoretical plates of the column was 2. Reprinted with permission from Chen et al. With this system, the authors investigated the effects of ammo-nioalkyl sulfonate additives on electrokinetic pumping and separation. A gradient solvent delivery system was developed by Figeys and Aebersold using two open-channel EOPs.
One pump was used to pump an aqueous solvent and the other for organic solvent, and a gradient solvent was produced by varying the pump rates. Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD) solvent delivery system was integrated with a reverse phase microcolumn and an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometer for peptide analysis.
Lazar et al. The microchip integrated all the necessary functional components e. The overall size of the microfluidic network was so small that two fully functional HPLC systems can be incorporated on a 7. The device was tested for analysis of protein digests obtained from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The analysis enabled confident identifications of 77 proteins, demonstrated that these chips can be used for high-throughput biomarker discovery.
Schematic representation of a microfluidic LC system. Arrows indicate the main flow pattern through the system. Reprinted with permission from Lazar et al. Very recently, a microchip LC system integrated with EOP was reported to separate six nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives and their degradation products Borowsky et al.
The pump and LC channels were fabricated on a single quartz substrate. The pump was a channel 3. Jin et al. Electroosmotic pumps have been used in micro energy systems, as well. Water management is a significant challenge in portable fuel cells and particularly in fuel cells with air-breathing cathodes. Water flooding at the cathode of a fuel cell is a common problem in fuel cells.
Excessive flooding of the open cathode can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. Buie et al. EOPs have no moving parts, scale appropriately with fuel cells, operate across a wide range of conditions, and consume a small fraction of fuel cell power.
EOPs can relieve cathode design barriers and simplify water management in fuel cells. In their system, two 1. The results showed that removing water from the cathode using integrated EO pumping structures improved fuel cell performance and stability. Fabian et al. A hydrophilic conductive wick was in direct contact with cathode gas diffusion layer and served as a water collector layer that hydraulically linked the entire cathode surface with the EOP located outside of the fuel cell assembly.
Litster et al. The EOP prevented flooding and provided rapid recovery from severe flooding. With this EOP, a 25 cm 2 fuel cell was able to operate at an air stoichiometry of 1. Except for water removal from cathodes of fuel cells, EOPs have also been used as a driving force for fuel delivery. Kim et al. Electroosmotic pumps have been used for electronic device cooling, as well. The rapid increase in power density and total power of microelectronics has spurred interest in miniaturized cooling systems that can achieve high heat dissipation rates.
A compact micropump is therefore a vital component for the high efficiency cooling of integrated Microsystems. EOPs, having no moving structural elements, have received much recent attention because of the potential of achieving both high pressure and large flowrate. Yao et al. The EOPs were fabricated using modified commercially available sintered-glass frits. The frits were porous cylinders 30 mm in diameter and 1. Both deionized water and buffered aqueous solutions have Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD) used as working fluids.
Jiang et al. The silicon heat exchanger attached to the test chip 1 cm 2 achieved junction-fluid resistance near 0. The EOP, made of an ultrafine porous glass frit with working volume of 1. The closed-loop system removed 38 W with pump power of 2 W and junction-ambient thermal resistance near 2. Electroosmotic pumps have been demonstrated to be efficient for fluid propulsion in microfluidic systems.
EOPs are capable of producing flows at high pump rates and against high backpressures. Often, high pump rates are obtained at low pump pressures, and vice versa. The most important features of an EOP are that it has no moving parts, generates pulse-free and stable flows, and are readily integratable with microfluidic and MEMS devices. EOF pumps happen to be ideally suited for microfluidic systems in which pulse-free and stable flow is desired. The robustness and reliability of EOPs have been a concern in some applications.
When properly designed, EOPs can be used as a stand-alone pump or integrated into a microchip device to generate adequate flow rates and pressures for miniaturized HPLC Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD). National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Microfluid Nanofluidics. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Email: ude. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Electroosmotic pumping is receiving increasing attention in recent years owing to the rapid development in micro total analytical systems.
Keywords: Electroosmosis, Micropump, Electroosmotic pump, Micro flow analysis. Open in a separate window. Table 1 Summary of the the performance metrics reported for the various EOPs. References Ajdari A. Pumping liquids using asymmetric electrode arrays.
Phys Rev E. Preparation of glycerol dimethacrylate-based polymer monolith with unusual porous properties achieved via viscoelastic phase separation induced by monodisperse ultra high molecular weight poly styrene as a porogen.
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Rep Chim Appl. Transport phenomena. Modern electrochemistry. Plenum Press; New York: High pressure electroosmotic based on a packed bed planar microchip. Sens Actuat B Chem. Electroosmotic flow-based pump for liquid chromatography on a planar microchip. Anal Chem. Long-term stable electroosmotic pump with ion exchange membranes.
Pumping of water with ac electric fields applied to asymmetric pairs of microelectrodes. Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells using integrated electroosmotic pumping. J Power Sources. Free convection direct methanol fuel cells powered by electroosmotic pumps.
ECS Trans. Electroosmosis-based nanopipettor. Electro-osmotic streaming on application of traveling-wave electric fields. A planar electroosmotic micropump. J Microelectromech Syst. An electroosmotic pump for packed capillary liquid chromatography.
Microchem J. Generating high-pressure submicroliter flow rate in packed microchannel by electroosmotic force: potential application in microfluidic systems. Study of an electroosmotic pump for liquid delivery and its application in capillary column liquid chromatography. Application of a high-pressure electro-osmotic pump using nanometer silica in capillary liquid chromatography.
Fabrication and characterization of a multi-stage electroosmotic pump for liquid delivery. An electro-osmotic micro-pump based on monolithic silica for micro-flow analyses and electro-sprays.
Anal Bioanal Chem. The microfabricated electrokinetic pump: a potential promising drug delivery technique. Export Opin Drug Deliv. Continuous dynamic flow micropumps for microfluid manipulation. J Micromech Microeng. Development of an electro-osmotic pump using nanosilica particle packed capillary.
Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using porous anodic alumina membranes. Microfluid Nanofluid. Electroosmosis: a reliable fluid propulsion system for flow injection analysis. An AC electroosmotic micropump for circular chromatographic applications. Thin film electro-osmotic pumps for biomicrofluidic applications.
Water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing fuel cell with an electroosmotic pump. Nanoflow solvent gradient delivery from a microfabricated device for protein identifications by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Mechanism of porous core electroosmotic pump flow injection system and its application to determination of chromium VI in waste-water. Experiments on ac electrokinetic pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes.
Ber Deutsch Chem Ges. Partial electroosmotic pumping in complex capillary systems. Microchip device for performing enzyme assays.
Studien uber electrische grenzschichten. Ann Phys. In: Comprehensive treatise of electrochemistry. Recent advances in microscale pumping technologies: a review and evaluation.
Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits. A microchip-based proteolytic digestion system driven by electroosmotic pumping. A rapid field-free electroosmotic micropump incorporating charged microchannel surfaces. High flow rate per power electroosmotic pumping using low ion density solvents. Sens Actuat A. Integrated microchip device with electrokinetically controlled solvent mixing for isocratic and gradient elution in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
Capillary electrochromatography in anion-exchange and normal-phase mode using monolithic stationary phases. A review of micropumps.
Electrokinetic micropump and micromixer design based on ac faradaic polarization. J Appl Phys. Multiple open-channel electroosmotic pumping system for microfluidic sample handling. Microfluidic liquid chromatography system for proteomic Hi-Per 2006 - DJ Bufer - Pumping Frog (CD) and bio-marker screening.
Transport, manipulation, and reaction of biological cells on-chip using electrokinetic effects. Active water management for PEM fuel cells.
J Electrochem Soc. Flow injection analysis in the capillary format using electroosmotic pumping. Anal Chim Acta. A simple means to increase absorbance detection sensitivity in capillary zone electrophoresis. Sequential injection analysis in capillary format with an electroosmotic pump. Electroosmotically pumped capillary format sequential injection analysis with a membrane sampling interface for gaseous analytes. Electric field-decoupled electroosmotic pump for microfluidic devices.
Micropumps based on the enhanced electroosmotic effect of aluminum oxide membranes. Adv Mater. Part 1: Principles and general theoretical approach. Low voltage plug flow pumping using anisotropic electrode arrays. Robust monolithic silica-based on-chip electro-osmotic micro-pump. Micro-flow injection analysis system: on-chip sample preconcentration, injection and delivery using coupled monolithic electroosmotic pumps.
Molded rigid polymer monoliths as separation media for capillary electro-chromatography. Electrokinetic generation of high pressures using porous microstructures. Micro total analysis system. Springer; New York: Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system. US Patent. Electrokinetic pump application in micro-total analysis systems: mechanical actuation to HPLC. The role of electroosmotic flow in transdermal iontophoresis.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Development of an electroosmotic pump for high performance actuation. J Membr Sci. New concept for high speed liquid chromatography. Microfabricated electroosmotic pump for capillary-based sequential injection analysis. Ion-enrichment and ion-depletion effect of nanochannel structures.
Nano Lett. AC electric-field-induced fluid flow in microelectrodes. J Colloid Interf Sci. Pumping of liquids with ac voltages applied to asymmetric pairs of microelectrodes. Pumping of liquids with traveling-wave electroosmosis.
Fabrication and characterization of a fritless microfabricated electroosmotic pump with reduced pH dependence. Effects of ammonioalkyl sulfonate internal salts on electrokinetic micropump performance and reversed-phase HPLC separations. Electrokinetic flow in a narrow cylindrical capillary. J Phys Chem. Flow injection analysis.
Wiley; New York: Colorimetric microdetermination of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. A programmable planar electroosmotic micropump for lab-on-chip application. Z Phys Chem. An integrated AC electrokinetic pump in a microfluidic loop for fast and tunable flow control.
Low-voltage electroosmosis pump and its application to on-chip linear stepping pneumatic pressure source. Micro total analysis systems.
Low-voltage electroosmosis pump for stand-alone microfluidics devices. Monolithic silica columns for high-efficiency chromatographic separations.
High-pressure electroosmotic pumps based on porous polymer monoliths. Fast AC electro-osmotic micropumps with nonplanar electrodes. Appl Phys Lett. The effect of step height on ac electro-osmotic microfluidic pumps. J Colloid Interf. Macro porous silicon as pump media for electro-osmotic pump.
Phys Stat Sol a ; 5 — A new electro-osmotic pump based on silica monoliths. Ac electro-osmotic micropump by asymmetric electrode polarization. Electrochromatographic evaluation of a silica monolith capillary column for separation of basic pharmaceuticals. Determination of chromium VI and lead II in drinking water by electrokinetic flow analysis system and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A large flowrate electroosmotic pump with micron pores.
Proceedings of the international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, sixth microfluids symposium; New York. Porous glass electroosmotic pumps: design and experiments. Electroosmotic pumps fabricated from porous silicon membranes. Fabrication and characterization of electroosmotic micropumps. Electroosmotic flow pumps with polymer frits. Sens Actuat B. Determination of nitrite by sequential injection analysis using electrokinetic flow analysis system.
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