Great synergy between emcees Ryu and Tak, who sound like confident veterans even though this is their debut. Excellent production, dope sampling, clever rhymes, and wordplay — this album is an underground classic. Two superproducers working together, that has to result in something special, right? Taken as the fantasy it is, it is a fun album with a wonderfully dark sense of humor. Excellent production and top-notch emceeing — this is a classic, strangely enough with underground as well as mainstream appeal.
With the experience of a few Geto Boys albums under his belt, Scarface hammers out his solid debut, much in the same vein as what he did with the Geto Boys. Souls Of Mischief — part of the Hieroglyphics collective — succeeded in dropping a West Coast album without the gangsta cliches, and that is what makes it a classic Hip Hop album that sounds as fresh today as it did when it came out.
Amazing, rapid-fire wordplay by Opio, Phesto, A-Plus, and Tajai, who flow together really well with intelligent, funny, and clever lyrics. Dope beats, dope rhymes — dope album. Now, some of you will get all upset because you want to see this album ranked higher. It certainly was a bestseller, selling upwards of ten million units in the US alone. No, and no. The album would have been better with fewer guests, too.
Sonically slightly different yet again from the previous albums, we see a Rakim who lyrically still has no peer and who even drops some socially conscious rhymes this time around, along with his usual skill-flexing.
Aceyalone is an incredibly talented and unique MC, always pushing lyrical boundaries and succeeding effortlessly in all styles he employs. He released a string of excellent creative and innovative albums throughout his career, and this one is his very best. The album has more to offer, though. On top of that Willie D, Bushwick Bill and Scarface are all dope rappers, with their own, distinct voices.
A strong album and an early Southern classic. Progressive, soulful, stylistic and inventive production and exceptional lyricism by Gift Of Gab, truly one of the most underrated and poetic emcees in the Hip Hop game. Nia is a gem. The classic debut of one of the most naturally gifted and best punch-line emcees ever.
Big L, rest in peace. All about positivity and empowerment, Digable Planets sadly flew a bit under the radar in a time when gun-toting gangsta posers started to get more and more of the spotlight. PUTS always comes with that authentic, real boom-bap Hip Hop and this first effort is a slept-on gem. Original, both lyrically and musically. Sadat X, Lord Jamar, and Grand Puba lyrics are alternately thought-provoking and fun; and sonically the album is dope as well. Arrested Development was rather a unique act.
Hailing from the South, but having nothing to do with stories of crime and violence. Instead, they brought a mix of spirituality, Shady Operation (SpekrFreks Mix) - Relentless (16) - Shady Operation (File, political content, black awareness, intelligence, respect, and positivity.
One of the earliest N. Already a Hip Hop veteran byToo Short came into his own on this album. Trademark explicit lyrics, with his typical laid-back flow and music to ride to. This album is one of his most consistent ones and contains a few classic tracks. An underground treasure. Production is handled by Yogi and is excellent throughout. Yogi and Chaddeo share the mic on mostly all of the tracks, with a few guest appearances by the likes of Ras Kass, Black Rob, and the legendary Slick Rick to add extra spice.
This is DMX at the top of his game: introspective, hardcore, and emotional at the same time. It got slammed because it contains two or three admittedly pretty bad love songs, but the album is long enough to be able to redeem itself. And it does. His production work is always incredible smooth and funky. He may not be the best emcee ever, but he more than holds his own on the mic. MP3) important album, one of the cornerstones of the rise to dominance of West Coast Hip Hop in the early 90s.
In an era when consciousness in Hip Hop was on its way out in favor of tales of violence and materialism, Jeru kept doing his thing. Insightful and profound, Jeru is relentless in his condemnation of gangsta posturing and the pimping out of Hip Hop by the big money suits, a condemnation which turned out to be highly prophetic. Quirky, humorous and fun — Del always had his own style. Much like a West Coast version of Masta Ace, he was always able to constantly reinvent himself and turn his talent into a decade-spanning career full of creative highlights.
This album is great start to that career. Kool G Rap sophomore album proved G Rap was one of the top lyricists in the game. Also, they faced the impossible task following up their mega-successful third album, the hugely influential classic Raising Hell. Wrong year, wrong coast? If this outstanding album had dropped in NYC a few years earlier, it probably would have been bigger back then and universally recognized as a classic right now. Nothing wrong with his lyrics and emcee skills either.
Why this album is so underappreciated is a mystery, but it deserves its props. A long, but an excellent album.
It could have done without the skits, but it is pretty much dope from start to finish. Essential Golden Age material. This is a supremely underrated and slept-on album. One of the most lyrical albums in Hip Hop ever, by one of the most underrated lyricists.
Musically reminiscent of The Roots, this smart and seductive album is one of most creative and interesting releases. A timeless album, that sounds as fresh today as it did in Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Nas - Illmatic One of the very best Hip Hop albums in history, period. The Notorious B. Ice Cube - Death Certificate Still angry, still hungry.
Mobb Deep - The Infamous An album that will forever polarize opinions. Public Enemy - Yo! Octagon Dr. DJ Shadow Endtroducing Gang Starr - Hard To Earn Markedly darker — both sonically and lyrically — than their previous albums, Guru is great and especially DJ Premier is in top form as always, cementing their combined status of one the most consistent acts in Hip Hop ever.
Public Enemy Apocalypse - Redman - Muddy Waters The Shady Operation (SpekrFreks Mix) - Relentless (16) - Shady Operation (File album in an incredible three-album run.
Eric B. Geto Boys - Grip It! Redman - Whut? Thee Album Redman is one of the most underappreciated emcees ever. Organized Konfusion - Organized Konfusion This album has it all. Dre - The excellent follow-up to Dr. Organized Konfusion - Stress: The Extinction Agenda Organized Konfusion was responsible for three excellent albums in the 90s — Prince Po and Pharoahe Monch show some unparalleled lyricism on this dark, dense, complicated and intellectual album.
Scarface Mr. Aceyalone - A Book Of Human Language Aceyalone is an incredibly talented and unique MC, always pushing lyrical boundaries and succeeding effortlessly in all styles he employs. Cru - Da Dirty 30 An underground treasure. Dred Scott - Breakin' Combs Wrong year, wrong coast? Bone Thugs-N-Harmony - E. Hieroglyphics — 3rd Eye Vision Ice Cube — The Predator Jurassic 5 — Jurassic 5 Beastie Boys Check Your Head UGK — Super Tight A responsible media equally helps in socialization of people into citizenship, democratization of the State and political society, institutionalization of civic culture through unfettered flow of information, and rationalized use of power in social relations.
Others instead suggest that this would not be a difference, since the control over official powers is extremely hard to be verified in practice. Often it is not easy, indeed, to find out who really controls a medium and how much potential efficacy it effectively could have for such goals. Right from the second you wake up till you go to bed after saying goodnight to your wife, kid, parents, siblings or friends, you are surrounded in a world built just for you by the media.
With the advent of advanced technology, there has been a drastic shift from the telegraph, and then the radio, newspapers, magazines and now to the most widely used- the internet. Our daily activities depend heavily on the information that is provided to each one, and the way that is communicated to them, be it entertainment, hard or soft news, personal relationships, travelling, or even healthcare.
The influence of the mass media operates with the mission of providing one with more information than they might have expected. This could relate to the decisions made at the workplace which may be based on the information that come from television, newspapers, the internet, friends, family or any other related individual. The mass media works is like a pull factor- it just drags you into its world, and makes you believe that whatever you do, you see and you hear is true, and the most trustable.
They come to you, not just to provide information, but also to lead you into their world, which ultimately makes you realize that most of the decisions, values and beliefs are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience.
Providing knowledge, information and entertainment books, newspapers, magazines, radio, film, TV and the Internet are very popular in every part of the world.
Mass media has become one of the most important means of modern communication and countless institutions and individuals are producing diverse types of contents in every moment.
In general we can say that mass media deals mainly with production and distribution of symbolic content. It aims to reach the largest possible audience and wants to be accessible for everyone.
There are various targeted groups so that for each special interest many different sources can be found. Furthermore, other characteristics of mass media are the presence of professional communicators who provide excellent interaction with society and the multiplicity of gatekeepers that filter the essential parts.
There is a big responsibility in organization and management of mass media. As media organizations are owned by very different kinds of representatives of society their effects diverse a lot. They are part of society. So, as they take information out of it they disseminate their content within society.
Because of that these organizations have complex relationship with cultures, ideologies, recent technologies, economic systems, actual interests and, of course, political systems and government.
With this big influence they can permit themselves to make a huge profit to be established and to operate. Everywhere, the media flow defies national boundaries. This is one of its obvious, but at the same time amazing features. A global torrent is not, of course, the master metaphor to which we have grown accustomed. Those who resort to this metaphor casually often forget that if the world is a global village, some live in mansions on the hill, others in huts.
Some dispatch images and sounds around town at the touch of a button; others collect them at the touch of their buttons. It can be beneficial to society in its influence, yet sometimes have a bad effect. It can lead or mislead people into the wrong direction or belief. There are times in history, distant and near, where it has greatly inspired, united, and motivated the masses.
Let it be known, that it can also be used maliciously; to injure, or even achieve an injustice. The mass media can be a very powerful tool, and if not handled properly, with good judgment to govern, can become an enemy of society. Anywhere in the world, this media instrument greatly affects all persons indigenous and non-indigenous to where that region may be. Wright Mills defines mass media as having two important sociological characteristics: first, very few people can communicate to a great number; and, second, the audience has no effective way of answering back The Power Elite, The introduction of the internet into mainstream mass media has changed communication into a bidirectional process.
The internet reaches a broad audience but has less of an impact on shaping society. It is impossible not to communicate. Everybody communicates, everything communicates.
Communication is not a process limited to human beings only. All creatures on the earth, from worms to humans, are communicating each other for their better existence. It is a universal phenomenon.
The history of mass media is long and complex. It stretches back beyond the dawns of recorded history to the people that figured out that they could reach a larger audience through painting a picture on a cave wall than just by telling the story to whatever group happened to be present.
While these distant mass communicators may not have been Homo sapiens, certainly they were human. Humans are many things and the definition of what it means to be human is rarely, if ever, completely agreed upon within all schools of thought, however, one characteristic that defines humanness across all such definitions is the ability to communicate through the means of symbols, whether those symbols be words, pictures, or some other form of representation.
What was truly revolutionary about the Upper Paleolithic was not language, style or art, but the opening of the social conduits through which information of all such novel forms could flow. Shreeve goes on to point out that cave art was probably designed to be a part of a ritual experience which was carefully planned and transmitted through the societies of the time. The next great leap from representational pictures and art was to be able to express words or ideas clearly with written language.
The invention of hieroglyphics and alphabets allowed more complex forms of information to be passed between individuals even if the individuals never actually encountered one another. Being humans, those who were able to control and use these tools used them to control and use their fellow human beings as well. Thus, this conversation which henceforth has been concerned with the idea of humans communicating meaning; moves into the more insidious realm of human beings utilizing power within human populations.
Ever since the human society has developed, people have been communicating with each other through gestures, sound and body MP3). Later on, sounds were transferred into objects and ideas to develop oral language and for the development of written language, written scripts and symbols were evolved locating ideas and objects. The amazing fact to note is the intense and deep influence of oral tradition over centuries through myths, epics, legends, sagas, folk songs etc from one generation to another.
Communication needs of the society must be met for the existence of the society. Primitive society had sentinels that scanned the environment and repeated dangers. Council of elders interpreted facts and made decisions. Tribal meetings were used to transmit these decisions to the rest of the group. As society became larger and more complex, these jobs also became big and complex to be handled by single individuals. With the advent of technology, these jobs were taken over by the mass media.
Speaking historically, communication developed from simple interpersonal note to globally transmitted phenomenon which is portrayed by sophisticated technology, huge capital investment, vast designed organizations, legal frameworks prepared by professionals and experts to pop up into an unstructured and formless mass of audience, consumers of capitalism.
In the present information period, we have noticed a revolution in communication technology. Communication satellites, cable networks, computer systems, and their usages and ideas have become a central feature of modern life. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.
Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. There are a variety of verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. These include body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication, and chronemics. Other examples are media content such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing. There is another root of the origin of the word communication. Communion, community, communism, commonality, communalism etc.
Similarly, newer and newer terms are being coined as the concept of communication assumes importance day by day. Communication technology, communication media, communication age, communication management are just a few. As the very term indicates, the ultimate aim of the communication process is to create commonness between communicator and receiver of the message. Through communication, both communicator and receiver enter into a mental agreement.
Thus, they achieve their goal, which may be expression of an emotion or transmission of an idea. The basic foundation of human society is communication and it takes place at different levels — within oneself, between individuals, between individual and a group, between groups, between countries and so on.
Similarly, we use verbal and non-verbal forms of messages for communication. The significance of communication for human life cannot be overestimated. This urge for communication is a primal one and in our contemporary civilization a necessity for survival. That is to say without communication no society can exist, much less develop and survive. For the existence as well as the organization of every society communication is a fundamental and vital process.
Humans act rationally. Some people do not behave in rational ways because they generally have no access to all of the information needed to make rational decisions they could articulate.
Communication is essential for development of the society. We attain cultural, social and economic prosperity by sharing out experiences. How can we share experience without better communication? Just think of a person kept in isolation without any chance for communication with his friends and relatives. It is really a punishment, a prison life. Communication helps us interact with our surroundings, thus create positive relationships, share love, build up friendship and depend each other to enjoy life.
Can you imagine a world without media? Not at all. The basic mission of mass media is to create ties in human society sharing news. In modern world, media have some more roles to play. Media defines our political system, form public opinion, support public demands and set agenda of our social life. In short, no social activity, be it marketing, business, education, politics, media profession…, is possible without communication. Communication is a process which includes transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills, knowledge by using symbols, words, gestures, and visuals and so on.
As communication being a universal phenomenon that defines all human behavior, it is important to have a clear understanding of the concepts of communication.
Communication is primarily a mechanical process, in which a message is constructed and encoded by a sender, transmitted through some channel, then received and decoded by a receiver. Distortion, represented as any differences between the original and the received messages, can and ought to be identified and reduced or eliminated. Communication is the sending and receiving of spoken or written messages between people and places. Letters are the most common means of communication. Other means are telegram, telephone, telex, fax, e-mail, radio, television, newspapers, etc.
In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are three types of noise, which garble a communication: semantic i. There are also three types of filters, which determine how a communication gets interpreted by the receiver: info i.
Types of Communication: Types of communication are delineated in the figure below:. Author credit: P. Interpersonal communication is exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. Related skills are learned and can be improved. During interpersonal communication there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message.
Mass communication is impersonal. Word of mouth was the primary form of communication before print. This limited the information being transferred between people to that of immediacy and importance. This usually meant that the information only dealt with local or political issues. The advent and spread of print material like newspapers, handbills, books, and magazines accomplished many things.
First it increased the demand for literacy. In fact printed mass media is probably the most significant factor in the high level of literacy in the United States. Because the country is so large and spread out information needs to be transmitted, and if it is being transmitted in print form, people have to know how to read to receive the information and they have to learn to write to transmit their acknowledge and response back.
The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies media and appropriate inscription tools evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximatelyyears ago. Symbols were developed about 30, years ago, and writing in the past few centuries.
The Persian Empire centered around present-day Iran played an important role in the field of communication.
It devised what might be described as the first real mail or postal system, which is said to have been developed by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great c. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, and the service was later called angariae, a term that in time turned to indicate a tax system. The Roman Empire devised what might be described as a mail or postal system, in order to centralize control of the empire from Rome.
This allowed for personal letters and for Rome to gather knowledge about events in its many widespread provinces.
Sending messages to a large number of people and at greater speed was what man was always looking for. There was a time when men on horseback travelled long distances to convey news about say, a war. Pigeons were used as postmen to deliver messages. The invention of paper and printing, and later newspapers, were the first steps towards mass communication.
But it was only through the telegraph, invented by Samuel F. Morse inthat messages could be sent to long distances using a code. The next step was to send messages through human voice. Alexander Graham Bell in succeeded in using wires to send the human voice across long distances.
However, it was the invention of the radio by Marconi in which made sending of human voices over long distances possible. In the invention of the transistor made radio the most popular medium for sending voice messages. Today television, which can send voice as well as pictures, is found almost everywhere.
This was invented by Baird in Mass communication is the technology means of sending information, ideas and opinions from a mass communication to a complex audience. It is also defined as comprising the institutions and techniques by which specialized groups such as broadcasters, film producers and publishers employ technological devices to disseminate symbolic content to large heterogeneous and widely disperse audience.
Mass communications are impersonal. They are part of the institutions they work for and should not be blamed personally for what comes from the institutions. The credibility for the message is not for the individual communicator, but for the institution or the organization that send it. Thus, mass communication deals with collective sender. For example, a newspaper is not produced by only one person. The newspaper is the end results of collective efforts of reporters, editors, type setters, proofreaders, designers and printers.
In other words mass communication is the end product of more than one person. Mass media is a source of communication with masses and communication through mass media is mass communication. In mass communication, society communicates with itself as an individual or a group of people convey a message to the large group of people and they use transmitter of information such as magazines, newspaper, radio, television, books and posters or combination of these.
Micro-mass Communication: In this type of communication, we communicate with smaller number of people such as professor to his students.
Usually this type of mass communication does not require any channel for conveying message to the audience. Macro-mass communication: In this type of mass communication, we communicate with a large group of people. We communicate for conveying our messages to the large group of people through radio, TV, magazines and posters. In this way sender always uses channel for communication because communication with large group of people is not possible without any channel.
A medium of communication can be usefully defined as being any system that enables the flow of messages between one or more creators of messages and one or more receivers of messages. The range of media therefore includes such simple systems as face-to-face communication, in which human modalities, light, and air provide all that is physically necessary to enable communication and such complex media as television, in which a broad range of intermediate elements e.
Communication theory is not always focused on media. Theories of communication also focus on such issues as language linguistics, grammar, nonverbalcommunicators meaning, information processing, perception, relationships, disclosure, attraction, and conflictand messages presentation, information, and persuasion.
Communication theory has looked at media from a variety of perspectives. Systems theories, for instance, generally examine the constituent elements of media. Rules theories examine the constraints that we impose on ourselves when we use media. Diffusion theories look at how messages and new innovations, including media innovations, disperse through society. Mass media theories largely focus on the effects of media. Reinforcement, agenda-setting, functional, uses and gratifications, and dependency theories are all oriented on the effects of media.
The printed word, for example, is a medium; when we read a newspaper or magazine, something is communicated to us in some way. Similarly, electronic forms of communication — television, telephones, film and such like — are media the plural of medium.
Dutton et al suggest that, traditionally, the mass media has been differentiated from other types of communication such as interpersonal communication that occurs on a one-to-one basis in terms of four essential characteristics:.
Distance: Communication between those who send and receive messages media-speak for information is:. Technology: Mass communication requires a vehicle, such as a television receiver, a method of printing and so forth that allows messages to be sent and received. Commodity: An interesting feature of mass communication is that it comes at a price. Mass communication refers to a message transmitted to a large audience; the means of transmission is known as mass media.
The figure below depicts media communication model:. Close to 2,, people use social media worldwide. This is a remarkable change in just a few years and easily qualifies as a new way of communicating, unprecedented in the history of the world. It is a revolution because it changes the way we communicate from face-to-face individual contact to an electronic mediation with certain advantages and disadvantages. This means the way we say something is as important as what we say, or that the medium affects the content of what is said.
Mass communication is the study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper, magazine, and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film, as these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication or organizational communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large group of receivers.
Mass communication study involves following:. Advertising, in relation to mass communication, refers to marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication.
In the study of mass communication, broadcasting can refer to the practical study of how to produce communication content, such as how to produce a television or radio program.
Journalism is the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media, in this sense, refers to the study of the product and production of news. The study of journalism involves looking at how news is produced, and how it is disseminated to the public through mass media outlets such as newspapers, news channel, radio station, television station, and more recently, e-readers and smartphones.
Public relations is the process of providing information to the public in order to present a specific view of a product or organization. Public relations differs from advertising in that it is less obtrusive, and aimed at providing a more comprehensive opinion to a large audience in order to shape public opinion. Mass communication is a very effective and powerful tool of government and plays an important role in the stability of government and the unity of nation. On the other hand, it plays an important role in the society.
In simple words mass communication has the following functions. The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures. Movable clay type was invented in in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about have not survived.
This form of media started in Europe in the Middle Ages. He printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in The Gutenberg Bible, one of the books he published, was translated into many different languages and printed throughout the continent.
The invention of the printing press in the late 15th century gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was previously possible. The invention also transformed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained too expensive really to be called a mass-medium for at least a century after that.
As time progressed, no longer would books be produced by hand solely for the edification of the rich, privileged, and powerful. For the first time in history, printers made books — and the ideas they contained — available to citizens of more modest means. Those who dared defy these monarchs by marketing their mass wares faced burning, burial alive, and seizure of their property.
Despite these harsh penalties, books continued to spread. Even today, books continue their subversive ways. Newspapers developed from aboutwith the first example in English in ; but they took until the 19th century to reach a mass-audience directly.
The first high-circulation newspapers arose in London in the early s, such as The Times, and were made possible by the invention of high-speed rotary steam printing presses, and railroads which allowed large-scale distribution over wide geographical areas. The increase in circulation, however, led to a decline in feedback and interactivity from the readership, making newspapers a more one-way medium. For centuries, mass media were limited to books, newspapers, and magazines.
The dawn of the Twentieth Century saw an explosion in new ways for writers, business owners, and others to reach large numbers of people. From the Twenties through the Forties, families gathered around their clunky AM radios and listened to variety shows, news programs, adventure serials, and soap operas.
After the introduction of TV, radio shifted its focus more towards music, news and, especially in the latter part of the Twentieth Century, so-called talk radio. Again, as with movies, distant radio programs are now available on the Internet. In the Fifties, a number of people feared that television would kill movies just as some thought it would lead to the demise of radio. Neither happened. More consumers now view films on TV than in theaters. With the advent of cable TV and satellite dishes, ever-expanding options are available to viewers.
As broad band Internet connections become more commonplace, TV will also likely appear on the Internet scene. In recent times, the Internet becomes the latest and most popular mass medium. Information has become readily available through websites, and easily accessible through search engines. One can do many activities at the same time, such as playing games, listening to music, and social networking, irrespective of location.
Whilst other forms of mass media are restricted in the type of information they can offer, the internet comprises a large percentage of the sum of human knowledge through such things as Google Books. Modern day mass media consists of the internet, mobile phones, blogs, podcasts and RSS feeds. During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology, including that which allowed much duplication of material.
Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences.
Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. It is a substance, such as agar, in which bacteria or other microorganisms are grown for scientific purposes. It is a substance that makes possible the transfer of energy from one location to another, especially through waves.
For example, air can be a medium for sound waves, which transfer mechanical energy. Any kind of data including graphics, images, audio and video, though typically excluding raw text or executable code.
The term multimedia suggests a collection of different types of media or the ability to handle such collections. The physical object on which data is stored, as opposed to the device used to read and write it. The object at the physical layer that carries data, typically an electrical or optical cable, though, in a wireless network, the term refers to the space through which radio waves propagate. The most common definition of a medium is something through which one will get information or data like the TV, printed materials, radio, and the World Wide Web.
Medium has two plurals—media the Latin plural and mediums. While there is some gray area between the plurals, they are kept separate in several contexts. Media is used in reference to mass communications, where media are newspapers, radio, the internet, and so on.
Mediums is the plural when medium refers to a person who communicates with the dead. In art, where medium refers to materials used to create a piece, both plurals are commonly used. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms. Mencken, used as early as in the United States.
The different types of communication medium are divided into two different categories:. With physical media we mean channels where the person who is talking can be seen and heard by the audience.
The whole point here is to be able to not only hear the messages but also to see the body language and feel the climate in the room. This does not need to be two-way channels. In certain situations the receiver expects physical communication. This is the case especially when dealing with high concern messages, e. If a message is perceived as important to the receiver they expect to hear it live from their manager. The second of the two types of communication medium is mechanical media.
With mechanical media we mean written or electronic channels. These channels can be used as archives for messages or for giving the big picture and a deeper knowledge. But they can also be very fast. Typically though, because it is written, it is always interpret by the reader based on his or her mental condition. Irony or even humor rarely travels well in mechanical channels. Medium of communication is a system that enables the flow of messages between one or more creators of messages and one or more receivers of messages.
The range of media therefore includes such simple systems as face-to-face communication, in which human modalities, light, and air are all that is necessary to enable communication and such complex media as television, in which a broad range of intermediate elements e. The most common paths for such provocations are shown in the figure below:.
Mediators are the fundamental building blocks of media, and include such things using the telephone as an example as telephones, telephone wires, telephone switches, operators, and billing systems.
All media entail mediators. Even face-to-face communication depends on human modalities and the natural resources air and light that allow them to function. New media are built in the sphere of mediators, with resources including technologies and people organized in structure and process to support the creation and consumption of messages. Characteristics are the essential capabilities and generic attributes of a medium. The most obvious characteristics of media are the speed with which a message travels, the size of the audience, the time a message persists, and the production and sensory modalities it supports.
It is possible to characterize a medium in terms of hundreds of generic characteristics, and to compare media based on those characteristics. There are hundreds of operationalizable characteristics with which media can be described and compared.
Such comparisons matter, as characteristics determine the kinds of things a medium will be useful for. The Club caved in and banned Skrewdriver. Much to the annoyance of the media music press, the club Skunx in Islington continued to book Skrewdriver who were their biggest attraction at the time.
But due to Police pressure the club was forced to refuse future Skrewdriver gigs by the end of the year. Yet again Gary Bushell was very loud in his condemnation of anyone who was still prepared to book Skrewdriver for concerts, personally threatening them with a blackout of all their future Sounds advertising. For a long while he was enemy number one. As well as slagging Skrewdriver he began to heavily promote left wing causes. Skrewdriver now added a few more nationalist songs to their set and from an earlier demo tape they chose the material for next White Noise release.
The release of Voice of Britain single was met with full skinhead approval. The media reds wanted to destroy the band and its supporters. This success inspired other new and upcoming bands into the nationalist music scene. This was a blow to the music press because here was a real underground movement thriving right under the noses of all who had tried to destroy it. No plastic punks here! Also receiving Branch recruitment cup from Chairman Andrew Brons.
These positions were soon filled by two Aussies. Skrewdriver not only now had an international lineup but was increasingly making an international name for themselves. The NF decided that the bands coverage in Bulldog magazine was not enough and launched White Noise magazine and an organisation to run it. Billed to play in front of 18, spotty teenagers high on drugs, new hippy students, perverts and queers of every breed, numerous freaks and social misfits and general do-gooders were the communist-homosexual group The Redskins, multi-racial Aswad, the outspoken communist Billy Bragg and freaks The Smiths.
Also turning up were some 80 Skrewdriver skinheads and a firm of Chelsea Headhunters. Skrewdriver were banned from playing their music and voicing their democratic rights to freedom of speech, yet these bands were actively encouraged to take to the stage and sing in huge open air festivals and peddle their own opinions and vile political viewpoints.
The Redskins were half way through the song Lean On Me, when a beer bottle was thrown at them, just missing Chris Dean. This was the signal, and our skinheads stormed the stage. With the echos of Sieg Heil, breaking glass and feedback, The Redskins were soon beaten down, covered in blood and begging for mercy. Heads were cracked and bones broken, the bass guitar even ended up going through the drums. Despite the massively overwhelming odds the skinheads and nationalists reigned triumphant.
With the trendy students with their Free Mandela t-shirts running for cover. Shortly afterwards a group of anti-fascists punks, Class War and Red Action types joined up and tried to fight the skinheads. They were even slagged off by other left-wing festival-goers for being aggressive and spoiling their party! Running battles followed in the streets around Jubilee Gardens along Waterloo Station and it even in St.
The Redskins, their supporters and the rest of the race-mixing degenerates shit their pants. Skrewdriver - Open Up Your Eyes. Herbert the labels chairman realised the bands potential and contacted lan, offering him a contract to make one LP and a single.
At the same time the NF arranged a deal with Rock-o-Rama to collect material for a compilation LP and take money from its pressing. Officially it was to be a Rock-o-Rama release. Ian already had more than enough material for an LP and so went straight to into the studio. Hail The New Dawn was then released in the summer of Nicky Crane, did the LP artwork for the cover design, but wrote the lyrics to the song Justice, which tells the tale of his own dealings with British justice when he was sent down for four years for defending himself, along with a group of friends who happened to be British Movement members, against a bunch of rampaging niggers who were attacking them.
With Steve playing the second guitar this added more atmosphere and helped the band develop its heavier sound. Swainy was the ex-axeman with the Oi! The 4 Skins themselves were not new to the nationalist scene. They were involved in the race riot at the Hambrough Tavern, Southall in The band were doing a gig at the Hambrough Tavern, along with fellow Oi!
Gary Hitchcock the 4 Skins manager was also an ex-member of the British Movement. Skrewdriver having progressed from punk to street punk to Oi! With the bands debut on Rock-o-Rama still selling as fast as day one, the label again requested some more recordings. Again Ian already had enough material for an album, and so immediately went to studio. Scotty himself got involved in the engineering and producing the songs which helped improve the overall professionalism and clarity of their sound.
Ian was extremely pleased with the final product, as any change in musical direction was risky, for fear of alienating their traditional skinhead following. These were blended in with more general themes of racial pride. It was while travelling home from the studio that Ian and some band members and crew were involved in a scuffle at King Cross Underground station with some feral black criminal gang.
The air was soon filled with violence as the two sides fought, only stopped by the Transport Police. Ian and flat mate, Des Clarke were singled out and arrested. Clarke had played a major part in organising Skrewdriver merchandising and the White Noise fanzine. Charged with violent disorder, Ian and his co-defendant stood trial on the 11th December The black youths failed to show up for 3 days in a row.
Without them there could be no case. The Judge was unrepentant, and both Ian and Des Clarke received 12 months in jail. Both had worked together on a few NF projects before. As Ian sat inside his cell he had plenty of time to think about the NF and his situation. They promised to make his imprisonment high profile. Ian was nonetheless receiving loads of mail courtesy of skinhead fanzines and international publications. Jail was a new experience and one that he would be keen not to repeat.
Ian was getting five times as much mail as the other prisoners and got regular visits to hear news from the outside. Books were regularly sent it, and even whilst in jail Ian was passing around pro-White literature. In-between listening to the radio and writing lan also read. Tolkien and lan would read The Lord of the Rings for hours at a time. One of the main characters in the book is the old wizard called Gandalf the Grey. Could this be from where the Skrewdriver album got its title from?
Not so long into the new year of and Ian was transferred to the comparatively luxurious HMP Wayland in Norfolk as prisoner L and was pleasantly surprised that the inmates were predominately White.
The lower security class prison allowed Ian the use of an acoustic guitar. Again he concentrated on writing new material and answering his regular large correspondence.
Skrewdriver - The Showdown. On Thursday March 6th Wayland Prison awoke to see a picture of prisoner L adorning the front cover of the Sun newspaper. It was quite a surprise as unknown to Ian someone had broken into his Kings Cross bedsit and stolen the photo of Ian and Suggs.
The story claimed Suggs Graham McPherson had given Ian money, helped him with his recordings and sheltered him in his north London flat. Instead of using the story for his own ends, Ian was unwilling to use and abuse his acquaintance with Suggs who had treated him well in the past, in return for any publicity or financial gain.
He just wants to make a living. On release from prison the White Noise magazine was launched. Featuring an interview with the Skrewdriver front man, giving him the opportunity to talk about his jail term and the events that led to it.
Another open-air festival was set up in Suffolk and so White Noise was truly launched. T-shirts, badges and records were all advertised and the money for memberships was pouring in.
Ian was keen to see the money put to good use, but although he was the White Noise organiser, the funds were securely under the supervision of Patrick Harrington, Derek Holland and Nick Griffin at the NF.
International attention was growing Ian appeared in various newspapers and magazines including a four-page article in the mass distribution American newspaper Spotlight.
One organisation in America was so impressed it wanted to honour Ian for his work in spreading the message. He knew nothing of this until he received the certificate through the post addressed to the Reverend Ian Stuart. It was around now that the NF was politically trying something new towards what it called a Third Way. Race was no longer the central issue and this was to be the undoing of the National Front. Ian was not happy with the way things were going. White Noise was bringing in more recruits, but the funds of this were being used for the NF efforts and not reinvested back into White Noise as promised.
So Ian decided enough was enough and forwarded a resignation letter. The NF leadership realised that they may have gone a step too far. Ian would have his royalties paid directly from Germany and the National Front would pledge more funds for White Noise.
Ian believed what he was told and retracted his resignation and returned to work for the NF. By early summer Ian decided that something new was required that would represent the music scene and the bands. An exclusive organisation free from constraints and control of any political party. RAC and band supporters came from many different political groups on the far-right.
An independent organisation would be for unity. As a direct result of the widely felt disappointment with the incompetent leaders of White Noise, lan launched a new independent organisation that would be run by the people that it would serve. Leaving Harrington and his cronies with only a handful of members and just a few bands to cash in on.
A magazine promoting NS ideals, NS music, be it rock. A cog in a movement that has divisions in most countries. A no compromising stand against all we consider corrupt. To promote White Power through positive ideals and a positive message. To create units in every city hi every town in every country. To promote our culture and our traditions. To help any worthy political organisation either financially or with manpower on the streets.
To win our nations back, once and for all. The first issue of the magazine of the same name featured an interview with Ian who used the opportunity to explain the current situation of the RAC scene. Skrewdriver played their first independent concert on the June 4th Skrewdriver was greeted on stage by hundreds shouting Sieg Heil.
On stage, Ian was back to delivering mini-speeches In-between songs then storming straight into his song. Ian influence over the crowd was immense. Developments had been taking place within the NF for some time now with a few representatives looking to pre-Hitlerite national revolutionary and Strasserite ideas as a way of taking the movement forward.
Robert Mathews formed a group with fellow White men called The Order. Whilst in Europe a wave of extreme-right bombings in Italy occurred.
These the bombings killed over lives were carried out by the Armed Revolutionary Nuclei NARa cell structured organisation that advocated a style of fascist politics known as the Third Position. These terrorist activities proved inspirational to some in the NF. Italians wanted for questioning about a series of killings and bank robberies were provided with safe housing in Britain with the help of the League of St. Fiore, Holland and others worked jointly on a magazine called Rising which put across this new thinking, and Holland went on to produce a booklet, The Political Soldier, which became their guiding publication.
This political soldier element within the NF made drastic changes to its polices, dropping public racism and replacing it with support for black nationalists such as Louis Farrakhan. Griffin and Holland even travelled to Libya which resulted in Colonel Gadaffi becoming an unlikely hero and the NF News appearing with a black power fist on the cover with the words Fight Racism!
For many supporters it was very hard to see what they had fought for destroyed from within. There was even stories that the NF leaders were Shady Operation (SpekrFreks Mix) - Relentless (16) - Shady Operation (File of a homosexual nature. They only managed to stay afloat as long as they did because the Newcastle based Odinist white rock band Skullhead refused to believe that it was a corrupt and dying organisation.
Skullhead formed in and built up a strong following in the North. In fact, much to the infuriation of the Consett MP at the time and the Searchlight anti-fascist magazine, published by Jewish communist Gerry Gable, Kev even managed to gig with Skullhead whilst out on weekend leave.
Once the bill was paid Harrington then had the balls ask if it was okay to take home more records on credit. He was obviously told where to go. Herbert agreed to writing the letter but wanted to also include a note about the eleven month delay in that payment. In one final attempt to gain credibility, the White Noise Club was closed down and reinvented as a new organisation called Counter Culture.
The nationalist bands were then told they needed to smarten up their image and were told to give up their boots and white power t-shirts. The band then formed their own association named Unity Productions.
They had continued to be active on the streets and by the new year of were led by lan Anderson. The Flag Group were soon able to claim the National Front name as their own. All the trouble with the White Noise Club could have been easily sorted if the scene leaders had the bottle to unite in common and talk to each other positively. This was never to happen and ended up with rumours and counter-rumours working the mill non. Ian was still dealing with the NF who were still trying all kinds of tactics to destroy his latest project.
Although he devoted much time to anti-Harrington-Holland NF it must be said they spent twice as much time being bothered about him. Later Harrington claimed that they were purging their ranks of Nazis. They even contacted the Board of Deputies of British Jews informing them that membership was now open to Jews. Ian was soon finding that Skrewdriver was even in greater demand.
More record stores were stocking his Rock-o-Rama releases and offers of gigs were coming in from all across Europe. Skrewdriver returned to Europe by playing in Gothenburg, Sweden. The ferry trip took over 24 hours and the band used the time to get totally merry. On arrival in Sweden they were met by members of band Dirlewanger. Hospitality was excellent and although there were a few hitches at the gig the whole weekend was a great success. This trip was later written as the song Land of Ice.
With skinheads first appearing in Stockholm back in and used to meet in a rock club called the Underground. This was later closed down and a new place was adopted near the subway station in Gamla Stan the Shopter Plate.
So 29th November after a lot of organising and hard work, Skrewdriver finally got to Stockholm. The police tried their best to give the organisers a hard time, however against all the pressure an extremely small PA was acquired and the gig went ahead regardless. Ian was busy as ever with British nationalism, touring the country and Europe with Skrewdriver, writing for and replying to zines and recording albums.
By now lan had his far share of female admirers but as yet that special person had not entered his life. Whilst in Gothenburg Ian met a girl by the name of Agnetta and the two of them started a relationship. With people speculating Ian might even move to live in Sweden.
After a brief, but passionate relationship it came to an abrupt end. The level of musical talent and skill was totally unique to what had gone before. It included many of the songs lan wrote whilst in prison.
It was a call to support the White nationalists in South Africa. The cover design for the LP was drawn by Christian from Germany. Which once again showed the growing global influence the band was having on the World. Skrewdriver singles were now much sort after items and these albums were seen as a way of getting them out to the public.
Another gig was arranged for the 5th September Which included French, Italian and German supporters. John was brother of Paul Burnley from No Remorse. At the same gig Skrewdriver decided to do a guest spot of five numbers and were filmed for Belgium Television.
Concerts were being set up fortnightly basis with many in the midlands of England. In London skinheads gathered inthe various Kings Cross pubs that had become popular with RAC band members and supporters. The magazine included regular features such as gig reports, band interviews, readers letters, RAC charts and a White Whispers column. In a matter of months the subscription-only mag sky-rocketed to a circulation of 5, One shop was Cutdown owned by Andrew St John.
Originally as a mail order outlet but the shop also stocked general skinhead, ska, mod and Oi! Cutdown even organised their own Oi! The police said they would allow the gig to go ahead only if tickets were sold by mail order and limited to one per person per home address. The bands set to play were Oi! Back in the summer of the Upstarts played a concert in Wolverhampton.
In addition to the regular gig goers were some 50 or so National Front members who thought Mensi and his band needed sorting out. Bottles and glasses soon rained in on the stage, the band shit themselves and their manager Keith Bell got glassed and needed six stitches.
Some 9 years on Mensi and the boys were still busy regularly playing Anti-Fascist Action gigs, attending communist meetings and Socialist Worker functions. It seemed the band had not learnt their lesson and needed a refresher course. As a result the management of the Astoria called the police who closed the gig down and arrested 16 people. The left wing campaign against him had intensified with regular demos outside his Argyle Square home.
When he complained to the police Ian was told that he would have to stay in his room and if he showed his face at the demo he may be arrested. On a few of occasions Ian walked out of his flat to find a carload of anti-fascists waiting to attack him. The left wing were attempting to show him as the son of Hitler and as bad a pedophile scum. The very reputation they had given him.
Among the people who often dropped in to visit were some Chelsea football fans that Ian had known in their skinhead days. One night arriving late after trip to the burger bar in Kings Cross station, a fight broke out with some queers who frequented the Bell Pub.
Fists flew and one of the gays got stabbed. Before he knew it, Ian and three others were dragged off to the police station and charged with violent disorder. While in jail once again, Ian spent alot of time to writing to comrades and started to write some fiction. By the time he was released Ian had written a page novel. The story was based in the fictional land of Valaria and was to be published as The New Dawn. Ian hoped to publish the book and maybe do an accompanying LP to go with it.
Much to the disappointment of the Searchlight representative present in the courtroom Ian was finally freed at Islington Magistrates. From this and the Police general attitude towards Ian it was obvious the authorities were keen to keep Ian locked up. Ian certainly had no friends in the media. Concert venues were becoming harder to find, with but some owners were prepared to risk a booking. They ensured that concerts passed without incident. Rock-o-Rama were particularly pleased with the way things were going and in the early part of summerSkrewdriver, Brutal Attack, No Remorse, Sudden Impact and Vengeance all signed deals at an evening session in the Kings Cross pub The Prince Albert.
The only income Ian had came from record and t-shirt sales which was enough to keep him going. Not interested in material goods, it bothered him little that he was living in a tiny bedsit.
His favourites being Neighbours and Emmerdale Farm. Supporters wrote from all over the world. New bands would send demos and photos in the hope of a mention in the next edition of Blood and Honour magazine.
Ian received about 20 letters a day and after reading his mail, processing merchandise orders and banking the cheques, Ian would often try out his new songs on visiting friends. Every other weekday was spent in training, lifting weights and running. After being attacked whilst out running Ian resorted to running up and down the five flights of stairs in his flat. Most evenings were spent with visitors and listening to records.
Ian had a vast collection of records, and although his guests were hoping to listen to RAC music Ian preferred rock music and would more likely have the latest Motorhead, Cult and Rolling Stones releases. His evening meal was often traditional English pie and chips. However the French police in decided to cancel the gig only an hour before the doors were due to be open. This left or so skinheads some who had journeyed from Italy, Germany and the UK with nowhere else to go.
Soon enough disgruntled and angry skinheads went storming through the Brittany town stabbing, cutting and coshing any darkies they saw. Soon after this album Skrewdriver was joined on guitar by Ross McGarry to complete a five-piece band once again. By the autumn the lads were busy in the studio recording a new LP for Skrewdriver entitled After The Fire and at the same time did the hard-hitting single The Showdown.
The Showdown also known as Race War was the last single financed independently by lan and Cutdown. The album was slightly more aggressive than the previous White Rider LP. The LP was of very poor quality and was put out on the Viking Records label operating from an anonymous London box number. The gig itself was at the North Star pub situated on the Finchley Road, was fairly small but had an upstairs hall that had held more than its fair share of rock concerts and private functions previously.
They were having a quiet drink in a local pub when a group of around 12 to 15 Reds Scum burst through the doors and attacked the two with CS gas, knives and bottles. Ian was hit over the head and despite being injured Ian and Ken both valiantly fought back and the commie cowards were sent packing down the road with blood covered faces.
He later received 26 stitches which looked worse than they were and luckily Ken had come off relatively unscathed. But rather than go to the hospital and let the crowd at the gig down they went straight ahead and did the concert. Returning to the North Star Ian was immediately surrounded by concerned friends who were all ready to go out for revenge. This was followed by a powerful rendition of his musical repertoire. It was as much for effect as it was a sign of defiance to those who would try to stop him.
The commies, albeit unwittingly, were driving lan on. The more they tried to stop him, the more determined he became to be triumphant despite them. To National Socialists all over the world marked what would have been the th birthday of Adolf Hitler. Celebrations were planned all over the world. In Britain the media were still focused on one man — Ian Stuart.
Many in he rank and file of the BNP or NF would have loved to have made a more public display to the memory of Hitler but knew that it would create unwanted bad publicity for their political parties. From the ever cunning schemes of the opposition a new plan was needed. Shady Operation (SpekrFreks Mix) - Relentless (16) - Shady Operation (File such idea worked out well and embarrassed the media.
No Remorse had sent out cassettes of some of their less controversial songs under the false band name Valhalla. Almost all of the clubs receiving them wrote back favourably and offered them gig slots. One such night in April No Remorse were asked if they knew of another band who could play alongside them. In times like these the bands never knew quite what to expect and the first obstacle was to ensure that they got inside without too many questions.
Once the bands and roadies were in it was almost impossible for the promoter to stop the event. The Cave gig went well, the audience responded favourably and there was something of a party atmosphere. What astonished Ian was the fact that Mr Solomon was keen to have them back! At first Ian guessed he was just being sweet-talked until the everyone had safely left the premises. But Ian was surprised when he later received a call confirming a second booking.
New Musical Express magazine were red faced at their own embarrassment at how they could have advertised a Skrewdriver gig in their pages. Outside of London gigs were easier to come by.
Skrewdriver started to appear regularly in and around Nottingham city. A week before the gig Gerry Gable, the Jewish communist convicted criminal and one of his cronies from Searchlight a Graham Atkinson, both travelled to Sweden and gave a press conference. Gable told the newspapers that he was a journalist and said that Skrewdriver were not going to do the gig. He told the listening reporters that lan Stuart was going to speak at a political meeting and the gig was just a cover.
This was an outright lie and blatant fabrication. The police bused in an extra officers from Stockholm to meet some 24 or so anti-fascists led by Gerry and his midget chum Atkinson. Gable and his red ragbag army had wasted thousands of Swedish taxpayers money for the extra police, and Skrewdriver were still holding an extremely successful concert not a meeting in Stockholm for over supporters from Sweden, Finland and Germany enjoying a great musical evening with no trouble and no arrests.
The Break the Chains tour took Skrewdriver to various concerts around Europe. Sweden was popular as was Germany where, at Nieheim, over a German nationalists came to see their heroes.
Concerts abroad had a very different atmosphere to those in Britain. At home Ian knew most of his audience by sight and name and although they full respect for him, their admiration was never really hero worship. Abroad his fanatical supporters looked upon him as something of a God. On arriving at the venues Ian would often find a long queue forming. They were lining up to meet him and get his signature. Certainly touched by the massive show of affection Ian never let this fame go to his head.
He saw it more as an opportunity to channel this appreciation towards the cause. By the spring of the project band of Ian called The Klansmen was in full flow. Many thought the diversion into the Rock-a-billy scene was a good idea.
And it would have been a bigger success if Rock-O-Rama had put in more backing and investment. But this one was a slightly more personal album. Which seemed to sum up how difficult it is to continue playing in a White Rock and Roll band and putting up with all the pressures of Zionist intimidation everyday. The Klansmen - Fetch the rope.
The Klansmen - Arkansas air. With the stores attracting large numbers of skinheads and white youths acquiring Skrewdriver merchandise. With this media popularity Andrew St. Right from the beginning lan had concerns over the security arrangements.
The same gig the year previous with Oi! The concert like the Oi! Over tickets were sold giving St. John and his friends a reasonable return on their investment. The promoters ensured the concert would go ahead booked three venues for the night, all under different names, and told people before buying tickets that the gig crowd video recorded and that all trouble makers would be identified and reported to the authorities. Plus, as an added security bonus the concert goers were told to rendezvous at Speakers Corner in Hyde Park were they would be told the concert venue and directions how to get there.
Undeterred and through hard work and a bit of luck they managed to find a small venue in north Kent. At the same time Mr St. John never did send out the new rendezvous leaflets as promised. At odds of a hundred to one the brave Reds attacked the few people, which included the beating up of a 15 year old girl. Still against all the odds the gig when ahead, but lessons were learnt never to work with outsiders again.
No surprises there then. Obviously Ian and Skrewdriver cut all connections with Benjamin and his business immediately. That in addition to the leftwing constantly harassing him and he decided to move north. Ian Stuart - Ride the wind. The Klansmen - Still burning. So Ian packed up his belongings and moved up north. Most of the gigs were being held in the east Midlands area and it was a very fertile place for nationalism.
Arriving in Ilkeston he stayed with the family of a skinhead by the name of Cat. Ian and Cat then moved into a house in Ripley. Ian knew the area from gigs he had played in Ilkeston and the surrounding area, but what really struck him was how friendly everyone was. The two friends got on well and eventually became almost like brothers. The east Midlands would now become the focus for Ian. With no hassles of London life, almost all UK gigs would now be based in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire or Staffordshire, with occasional trip to Newcastle.
Skrewdriver were back to being a four piece outfit, with Martin Cross going over to Paul Burnley and co and helping in the No Remorse project band Public Enemy. As well as joining up with the Mitcham crew and playing bass with Brutal Attack. Robert Jay Mathews was born on the 16th of Januaryand some 29 years later we would tell an audience in a stirring speech at a National Alliance convention.
One hundred hearts, one beat! Ten thousand hearts, one beat! We are born to fight and to die and to continue the flow, the flow of our people. Onward we will go, onward to the stars, high above the mud, the mud of yellow, black and brown! Kinsmen, duty calls! The future is now! So stand up like men, and drive the enemy into the sea! Stand up like men, and swear a sacred oath upon the green graves of our ancestors that you will reclaim what our forefathers discovered, explored, conquered, settled, built and died for!
Stand up like men and reclaim our soil! Kinsmen, arise! Look towards the stars and proclaim our destiny! A ruthless barrage of gunfire from handguns, rifles, and automatic weapons went on for over two minutes hitting Matthews several times. Then the Zionist Occupation Government agents fired incendiary missiles into the house and burned it to the ground, burning the Aryan hero alive inside.
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