Music journalist Amanda Petrusich has reported that retrospective 78 collecting began in the s, focusing on rare early Dixieland jazz recordings. In several articles and in her book Do Not Sell At Any Priceshe writes about 78rpm record collectors such as James McKune, an influential collector of jazz from the late s and of country blues.
These records featured vinyl polyvinyl chloride or polystyrenereplacing the previous shellac materials. Further groups of small labels came into existence with the dawning of the rock and roll era in the early-to-middle s, and the growth of a market among post-war teenagers with disposable income to spend on 45—rpm singles. Ronald D. Cohen relates that the hillbilly-focused Disc Collector magazine was formed in Various important online library catalogues list copies of Burke's Register of Record Collectors, which existed from at the latest.
One of the earliest UK record collectors was Mike Adams, who was first known for trading in on Merseyside. He wrote several books on collecting including Apple Beatle Collectables. In the US, New York's Times Square store is widely acknowledged for feeding the doowop revival of the early sixties, attention focusing on them from With the folk music boom in the late s to early s, there was suddenly a demand for archival material. Record collectors fanned out in some countries, searching small towns, dusty barns and mountain cabins for older discs.
Initially, the most-desired items were pre-World War II shellac discs containing " race records " that is, bluescountry blues and hillbilly musicthe precursors to then-current rock and roll and country styles.
Later generations of record collectors found their passion in digging up obscure 45s in the genre of doo-wopor LPs from the late s " garage rock " and " psychedelic " genres. The pop music scene changed with the rise in popularity of The Beatles between and In their wake, thousands of musical bands inspired by their fresh, lively take on rock music with a sharp British sensibility, picked up guitars, and many released records. Many of these acolytes released 45—rpm records in small batches to sell at local concerts and to their friends and families.
Due to their relatively small pressings, these obscure local records became highly prized and valuable. One of the "collector's items" with the most notoriety in record collecting is not a record at all, but merely an album cover. The Beatles themselves accidentally contributed what is probably one of the most well-known and valuable "collector's pieces" of the rock and roll era: " The Butcher Cover ".
This is an informal title for an album cover for the album Yesterday and Today. These American albums were shorter, had different songs, album titles and artwork. Price guide books were published, codifying exactly how much certain "rare items" were supposed to be worth.
The "grading" of records based upon condition became more standardized across the hobby with the publication of these price guides. With the introduction of the compact disc in the middle s, there began a stratification in the hobby; commonly found vinyl specimens that had been pressed in the hundreds of thousands or even millions of copies became relatively worthless, while the rarest of specimens became ever more valuable.
These rare items included 45—rpm discs in the genres of blues, rhythm and bluesdoo wop, garage rock, progressive rockand psychedelic rock. Some are pressings from nations where they were pressed in very small quantities such as the Sex Pistols' South African release of "God Save The Queen". Even in the 21st century, as music Marked For Death / Shook Ones Mash-Up - Various - Golden Era Records Mixtape 2013 (CD) have often opted for digital downloads over physical releases and indeed started to collect these in the same way as vinylcertain contemporary bands have a following of record collectors.
This is prominent for instance in the punk and alternative genres. Specific pressing runs of records are sometimes printed on different colored Marked For Death / Shook Ones Mash-Up - Various - Golden Era Records Mixtape 2013 (CD), have new or different songs, contain spelling or mixing errors, or may be in lower quantity than other pressings.
All such factors increase a specific record's collectibility. The bad experience and low quality result left the band so disappointed that they scrapped the session and re-recorded the LP elsewhere. The older sessions, however, were pressed onto copies of white vinyl entitled Chung King Can Suck It! Other music genres also have fervent adherents.
For instance, fans of folk rock, psychedelia and other genres have become ever more interested in original short-run vinyl private pressings. Even when these have been reissued, the originals can continue to attract high prices. However, the focus of the top classical collectors has now shifted to earlier material, and rare European monos from the s by top artists have become highly sought after.
The Far Eastern collectors who dominate this market tend to prefer chamber musicand solo violin and cello. Others still focus on antique 78s. As of many pressing plants have been reactivated and new releases in vinyl are appearing on an increasing basis, causing what many have called a revival of the format. The volume of product 9. Sales of Cassette Music Tapes have also increased in recent years with a Cassette Tape interest revival almost comparable to Vinyl Records.
A more intense method of record collecting, known as crate digginginvolves thorough searching of record bins to find a recording of interest. Roy writes, "As they trailed second-hand shops and car boot sales — depositories of unwanted capitalist surplus — diggers were bound to encounter realms of mainstream, mass-produced LP records now fallen out of grace and fashion.
They primarily used them as raw material, seeking to create beats out of them. Schloss says:. Art was closely intertwined with jazz in this era, something that pleased not only designers and customers but the musicians themselves, as Tony Bennett noted. Records were little cultural artefacts. Many of the best-known Impulse! One of the most renowned photographers was Charles Stewart, responsible for cover shots on more than 2, albums, including his wonderful portraits of Armstrong, Count BasieJohn Coltrane and Miles Davis.
He was introduced to the record industry by his college friend Herman Leonard and never looked back. Sometimes companies chose an iconic symbol or look that would define their output — as Impulse! This post-Second World War era was when the edgy modernism of bebop began to guide the innovative output of Blue Note.
The practice of using powerful photographs of the musicians has survived, and can be seen in the simple yet arresting photograph of Norah Jones on the album Come Away with Me. The pair were so famous by then that they did not even have their names on the album cover, just the gorgeous image taken by Vogue photographer Phil Stern, known for his iconic studies of Marlon Brando, James Dean and Marilyn Monroe.
The image-cementing photograph of rock stars would later play a major part in some of the great 60s and 70s album covers. David Stone Martin sometimes drew his covers with a crow quill pen, something he did for the iconic Verve album Charlie Parker With Strings.
Martin, whose work has been on show at the Smithsonian and the Museum Of Modern Art, did so many great album portraits for the Jazz At The Philharmonic albums in his distinctive solid black-ink lines including likenesses of Charlie Parker, Ella Fitzgeraldand Count Basie. He developed a serious and sensual image of jazz. But the first album to carry the sole name Reid K Miles was far from modern — a Sidney Bechet release a few months later. Miles, Marked For Death / Shook Ones Mash-Up - Various - Golden Era Records Mixtape 2013 (CD), who would later create covers for Bob Dylan and Neil Diamondwent on to make celebrated television commercials.
John DeVries would have been celebrated if he did nothing other than the one stunning illustration of Billie Holiday for a Commodore Record in DeVries had a real affinity for the music he was representing visually. Before moving into the album world, he designed a famous flyer for a Fats Waller concert and was also a noted song composer. He encapsulates why so many jazz album covers were special: the people making them had a sense of integrity to the music and dedication to the performers.
DeVries moved with the times, too. He was working on illustrations up to his death in — aged 76 — including covers for CDs by Clark Terry and Teddy Wilson. At the start of the decade, most rock music was sold as cash cow 45rpm singles; albums were primarily used to collect hits together in one package. The marketing was usually tied to cinema releases, and the imagery for many albums — especially soundtrack ones — came from film posters, such as Jailhouse Rock. There were innovative people at work in the popular music industry in that decade.
Topical concerns also sometimes featured, as in the mushroom cloud photograph on the cover of The Atomic Mr Basie. In the 60s it became fashionable for bands to commission covers from artists and art school friends. In London, rock music intermingled with the worlds of fashion and fine art. That cover truly broke the mould, not least for being an album where music and visuals began to meld as one creative entity. One musician who has taken a keener interest than most when it comes to album covers is John Mayall, who left a career as a graphic artist to form The Bluesbreakers.
They now run hand in hand, really. Mayall decided to use that shot. Colin Fulcher better known by his legally adopted name Barney Bubbles cut his teeth on the satirical magazine OZand, later, his designs for Hawkwind, Brinsley Schwarz and Nick Lowe were hugely influential.
He was a genuine original Marked For Death / Shook Ones Mash-Up - Various - Golden Era Records Mixtape 2013 (CD) adroit at blending imaginative typography with art. The windows of record shops were like a street-level art gallery, constantly delivering new surprises. The Rolling Stones broke ground with their covers in the 60s. And I liked the idea that they dressed like people on the street. The stark, in-your-face approach, continued with Out of Our Heads — shot by Gered Mankowitz because Bailey was unavailable — and did not really change until a couple of years later with the 3D artwork for Their Satanic Majesties Requestwhen psychedelic poses and quirky costumes were all the rage in the year of Sgt Pepper.
A 50th-anniversary deluxe box set reissue brings that original artwork back to life. The West Coast scene was having its own creative flowering, and Grateful Dead albums began to reflect the artworks they were housed in. Mouse, who had made his name in hot-rod art and painting T-shirts at custom car shows, played a key role.
Miller, a born iconoclast, copied a block print image on a poem he found in the San Francisco Public Library. Art and imagery were powerful tools for the Grateful Dead, and Mickey Hart even had custom-painted drum kits.
The 60s was also an era when album covers were becoming more defiant and raunchier. The cover for The Velvet Underground And Nico featured a bright yellow banana print from Warhol, contrasted against a clean white background. If you did this, a suggestive flesh-coloured banana was revealed. But Marked For Death / Shook Ones Mash-Up - Various - Golden Era Records Mixtape 2013 (CD) the artwork was too time-consuming and expensive — each sticker had to be hand placed — so the sticker ideas were abandoned for later pressings.
Album art as a concept was the new thing, and British designers Storm Thorgerson and Aubrey Powell were at the forefront with the firm Hipgnosis.
Hipgnosis used photography to powerful effect and seemed to have a constant stream of ideas. They suited an era when prog rock musicians were keen on overblown and fantastical album covers. With their ability to mix sex, surrealism and suburban alienation, Hipgnosis became key artistic inspirations in that era.
So did artist, publisher and designer Roger Dean.
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